Arthroscopy for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs)
For arthroscopic jaw surgery, the surgeon inserts a pencil-thin, lighted tube (arthroscope) into the jaw joint through a small incision in the skin. The arthroscope is connected to a small camera outside the body that transmits a close-up image of the joint to a TV screen.
The surgeon can insert surgical tools through the arthroscope to do surgery on the joint. This prevents the need for more incisions. This technique is used to diagnose and treat temporomandibular disorders (TMD).
During the surgery, the surgeon may:
- Remove scar tissue and thickened cartilage.
- Reshape parts of the jawbone.
- Reposition the disc.
- Tighten the joint to limit movement.
- Flush (lavage) the joint.
- Insert an anti-inflammatory medicine.
Procedures are done under general anesthesia. They usually take 30 minutes or longer, depending upon the type of procedure.
What To Expect
After surgery, you may start physical therapy within 48 hours. This will help you to maintain movement and prevent scar tissue from forming. You may also use a mechanical device that gently moves your jaw joint (continuous passive motion).
Your jaw movement may be limited for at least a month. And you may need to follow a diet of liquid and soft foods.
Why It Is Done
Arthroscopy can also be used to flush out the joint (lavage) or to inject an anti-inflammatory medicine. This can be especially helpful to people who have TMDs caused by rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthroscopy can be used to treat TMDs involving:
- Joint disease that causes tissue and bone to break down.
- Scar tissue (adhesions).
- Cartilage that is too thick.
- Severe disc problems in the joint.
- A jaw joint that has loosened over time or after an injury.
This procedure may also be used to diagnose a TMD (diagnostic arthroscopy).
How Well It Works
Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery that can effectively treat TMDs. Compared with an open-joint surgery, it can treat a TMD with fewer and less severe complications.
Complications of arthroscopic TMD surgery are uncommon but include:
- Outer, middle, or inner ear damage.
- Temporary or permanent hearing loss.
- Temporary nerve damage.
- Joint infection.
Any surgical changes to the bone and soft tissue can't be reversed. And they can create new problems in the joint's delicate balance. Scar tissue forms after surgery that involves muscles, tendons, and ligaments. It's likely to restrict jaw movement to some extent.