The Health Library is a collection of health and wellness resources created for learning and accessibility. Select a topic below for related health information or search for a topic in the search bar for more information on other medical conditions.
- Abnormal Blood Pressure Reading
- Abnormal Hearing Test Results
- Abnormal Lab Results
- Abnormal Mammogram
- Abnormal Pap Test
- Abnormal X-Ray Results
- Apgar Scores
- Blood Sugar Levels
- False-Negative Test Result
- False-Positive Test Result
- High INR Test Result
- Normal Sinus Rhythm
- Oxygen Saturation
- Total Cholesterol
Lab test results usually contain some type of unit of measurement. The units provide a way to report results so that they can be compared. Usually, but not always, the same test is reported in the same units no matter which lab did the test. Units...
Lab tests play one role in your health care. But while it is an important role, in most cases lab tests don't provide all the information your doctor needs to make a diagnosis or treatment decisions. Unless the test results are clear—either you are pregnant or you're not—your doctor will rarely make a decision or...
If you check your blood pressure, you may wonder when an abnormal reading means you should call your doctor. This information can help you understand what your blood pressure numbers mean and when you need to call for help. What do blood pressure numbers mean? Your blood pressure consists of two numbers...
Guides through the decision to have colposcopy if a Pap test shows minor cell changes. Covers other choices such as watchful waiting and HPV testing. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.
Pregnancy does not seem to increase the progression of abnormal cervical cell changes. The presence of abnormal cervical cell changes or HPV does not affect the outcome of the pregnancy. Close monitoring is needed so that you and your health...
What is an abnormal Pap test? When your doctor says that your Pap test, or Pap smear, was abnormal, it means that the test found some cells on your cervix that do not look normal. A Pap test may be done as part of a woman's routine physical exam, because it's the best way to prevent cervical cancer. But having an...
A cone biopsy is an extensive form of a cervical biopsy. It is called a cone biopsy because a cone-shaped wedge of tissue is removed from the cervix and examined under a microscope. A cone biopsy removes abnormal tissue that is high in the cervical canal. A small amount of normal tissue around the cone-shaped wedge of...
Cryotherapy destroys abnormal tissue on the cervix by freezing it. Cryotherapy destroys some normal tissue along with the abnormal tissue. During cryotherapy, liquid carbon dioxide (CO2), which is very cold, circulates through a probe placed next to the abnormal tissue. This freezes the tissue for 2 to 3 minutes. It may...
A carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam is used to: Destroy (vaporize) abnormal cervical tissue that can be seen through a magnifying viewing instrument (colposcope). Remove abnormal tissue high in the cervical canal that cannot be seen through the colposcope. The CO2 laser can be used to do a cone biopsy. To learn more...
The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is a way to remove abnormal tissue from the cervix. It is done using a fine wire loop that has a low-voltage electrical current. LEEP may be done after colposcopy and cervical biopsy have confirmed an abnormal Pap test result. In some cases, LEEP may be done instead of...
Cervical cell changes are classified according to their degree of abnormality using the Bethesda system (TBS). Further evaluation decisions are guided by the kinds of changes seen in the cells. Minor cell changes Minor cervical cell changes are also called: Atypical squamous cells (ASC). ASC is further classified...