Health Library

The Health Library is a collection of health and wellness resources created for learning and accessibility. Select a topic below for related health information or search for a topic in the search bar for more information on other medical conditions.

Geriatric Medicine

  • A perimetry test (visual field test) measures all areas of your eyesight, including your side, or peripheral, vision. To do the test, you sit and look inside a bowl-shaped instrument called a perimeter. While you stare at the center of the bowl, lights flash. You press a button each time you see a flash. A computer...

  • Covers surgery used to treat congenital glaucoma in children. Looks at what to expect after surgery, how well it works, and risks.

  • Discusses eye disease that damages the optic nerve. Covers open-angle, closed-angle, and congenital glaucoma. Covers importance of finding and treating early, to help prevent blindness. Looks at treatment with medicine and possibly with lasers or surgery.

  • Sex and sexuality communicate a great deal: affection, love, esteem, warmth, sharing, and bonding. These gifts are as much the right of older adults as they are of those who are much younger. Three aspects of sexuality are covered in this topic: the changes that come with aging, suggestions on how to adjust to these...

  • If you have narrow drainage angles or you have long-term (chronic) closed-angle glaucoma, you may need to avoid medicines that widen (dilate) the pupil, the dark spot in the center of the eye. Having wide pupils when you have these other problems may cause acute closed-angle glaucoma. This is a dangerous condition that...

  • During trabeculectomy—sometimes also called filtration surgery—a piece of tissue in the drainage angle of the eye is removed, creating an opening. The opening is partially covered with a flap of tissue from the sclera, the white part of the eye, and the conjunctiva, the clear thin covering over the sclera. This new...

  • Looks at a surgery for glaucoma typically used after a trabeculectomy has failed. Covers how it is done and what to expect after surgery. Also covers risks and how well it works.

  • Laser iridotomy uses a very focused beam of light to create a hole on the outer edge, or rim, of the iris, the colored part of the eye. This opening allows fluid (aqueous humor) to flow between the anterior chamber, the front part of the eye, and...

  • Discusses laser treatment for glaucoma. Also discusses how well treatment lowers the pressure in the eye. Covers why it is done and what to expect after surgery. Includes risks of this surgery and what to think about.

  • Learn how to safely get up after a fall and what to do if you need to call for help.

  • Learn what to expect during hip replacement surgery and how it can ease the pain of arthritis.

  • Learn how to fix some common tripping hazards around your home.

  • Hear how four people kept their friends and sense of self when they quit smoking.

  • See how family and friends helped three people cope with depression.

  • Needle aponeurotomy (say "ap-uh-noo-RAH-tuh-mee") is a procedure used to straighten bent fingers ( contracture) caused by Dupuytren's disease. This procedure may also be called percutaneous needle fasciotomy. The procedure can be done in your doctor's office. It usually takes about 30 minutes. The affected hand will...

  • Pressure injuries are described in four stages. Stage 1 sores are not open wounds. The skin may be painful, but it has no breaks or tears. The skin appears reddened and does not blanch (lose color briefly when you press your finger on it then remove your finger). In a dark-skinned person, the area...

  • Learn what knee osteoarthritis is and what may cause it.

  • People who have Alzheimer's disease or another dementia are sometimes easily confused. They may forget where they are, what day it is, and other common facts. Sundowning is a term to describe increased confusion that occurs in late afternoon and at...

  • Dementia is a loss of mental skills that affects daily life. It can cause problems with memory and with how well a person can think, plan, and communicate. Usually dementia gets worse over time. How long this takes is different for each person. Some...

  • Covers surgery to replace the ball, but not the socket, of the hip joint. Looks at why it is done and how well it works. Discusses what to expect after surgery and living with a hip replacement.

  • Learn what steps you and your family can take to help you live well with this disease.

  • Learn how to safely turn a person in bed.

  • Find out what cochlear implant surgery is and how to prepare for it.

  • Find out what you can do at home to care for your child after a cochlear implant.

  • Learn how to connect with others and find support to achieve your goals.

  • Get ideas for increasing social connection and reducing feelings of loneliness.

  • The need to stay at home and limit contact with others is important right now, but it can be lonely and isolating. Loneliness can take a toll on both our mental and physical health. Try these tips to stay connected and positive.

  • Learn some tips to help reduce loneliness and increase connection.

  • Learn ways to help older adults stay socially connected.

  • Find ways to stay connected when you can't be together.

  • Covers how you can help a family member who has post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Includes dealing with anger or violent behavior. Looks at how to communicate better. Covers how to take care of yourself and how to get support from others.

  • Discusses overactive bladder, a kind of urge incontinence. Explains what overactive bladder is. Looks at causes and symptoms. Covers how it is diagnosed. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Every year, thousands of older adults fall and hurt themselves. Falls are one of the main causes of injury and disability in people age 65 and older. Those who fall once are 2 to 3 times more likely to fall again. Hip fractures are especially serious, and most of them are caused by falling. Falls are often caused by...

  • As people age, they lose muscle strength, which can make them more likely to fall. Also, their reflexes slow down. This makes it harder for them to regain their balance if they start to fall. Learn some strength and balance exercises, and take the time to do them each day. This can help you stay active and...

  • After being away from sports since his college days, Steve decided it was time to get back in shape and back into the game. Squash (an indoor racquet sport) and weight training topped his list of activities to enjoy again. And he did for a while—until arthritis turned his enjoyment into pain. First signs of pain...

  • Bev isn't letting the pain of arthritis in her hands and back keep her from doing her favorite activity—gardening. Nor does she let it keep her from doing anything else in her life. She has found ways to help reduce the pain that allow her to still enjoy the simple pleasures in life, like seeing the season's first...

  • Exercise is one of the best things you can do to help keep your muscles strong and reduce joint pain and stiffness. And it can help you reach and stay at a healthy weight. But you want to make sure that you don't hurt your joints when you exercise. Before you get started, ask your doctor what kind of activity would...

  • The pain and stiffness from arthritis may make it hard for you to do your daily tasks. For instance, if you have problems with your hands or fingers, you may find it hard to type or to open and close a door. If you have problems with your hips or knees, it may be hard to go up and down stairs or get in and out of a...

  • When you find out that you have osteoarthritis, you may be scared and worried about how it may change your life, work, and relationships. It's hard to know how fast your arthritis may progress. Your symptoms may come and go, stay the same, or get worse over time. Some days you may feel fine and be able to do the things...

  • Guides through decision to have shoulder replacement surgery. Discusses what happens in shoulder replacement and what to expect after surgery. Also covers other treatments that you might try to manage osteoarthritis. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Provides links to how-to information on special health concerns of seniors. Includes healthy aging, sexuality, hearing loss, osteoporosis, and walking for fitness. Also covers writing an advance directive.

  • Learn how to use heat and ice to treat pain from arthritis.

  • Sjögren's syndrome is a disease that causes dry eyes and dry mouth. It can also affect your skin, lungs, and vagina and your energy level. The following steps and treatments can be very helpful in relieving your symptoms and improving the quality of your life. Getting plenty of rest, eating well, and doing mild...

  • Surgery is usually the best treatment for a broken (fractured) hip. Three types of surgery can be used. Hip repair (internal fixation). Hip repair involves stabilizing broken bones with surgical screws, nails, rods, or plates. This type of surgery is usually for people who have fractures in which the...

  • What is osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a disease that affects your bones. It means you have bones that are thin and brittle, with lots of holes inside them like a sponge. This makes them easy to break. Osteoporosis can lead to broken bones (fractures) in the hip, spine, and wrist. What causes osteoporosis...

  • If you have injuries, health problems, or other reasons that may make it easy for you to fall at home, it is a good idea to learn how to get up safely after a fall. Learning how to get up correctly can help you avoid making an injury worse. Also,...

  • Learn how to prevent falls by taking care of yourself, preparing your home, and following a few safety tips.

  • Finding the right nursing home can help you or your loved one feel safe and cared for. A good first step to choosing a nursing home is to make a list of homes you might be interested in. Talk to family, friends, doctors, and others to get recommendations of good nursing homes. If you can, it's good to plan ahead so...

  • Learn what to expect during cataract surgery and how it can improve your vision.

  • Learn what to expect during knee replacement surgery and how it can ease the pain of arthritis.

  • Learn what causes most falls and what you can do to stay safe.

  • Learn how getting an eye exam may help you stay safe and independent.

  • Learn how to do a simple exercise to strengthen your core and prevent falls.

  • Learn how some medicines can make you dizzy or drowsy and how you can stay safe.

  • Learn how to do two exercises to improve your strength and balance.

  • Learn to spot hazards in your home by using a home safety checklist.

  • Learn how to connect with family, friends, and others for support with health issues.

  • What does "high-risk" mean? High-risk means that a medicine can cause serious health problems or accidents. High-risk doesn't always mean "do not use." It can mean "use with care" when a medicine is more likely to help you than harm you. If you take a medicine that may make you feel confused, drowsy, or dizzy...

  • Get ideas about tools and changes to your home that can simplify your daily life.

  • What is frailty? Growing older often means getting tired faster and moving slower than before. But some older people become very weak, and everyday activities become hard to do. This may be a health problem called frailty. Frailty is more than just "slowing down." An older adult may be "frail" if a combination...

  • It's never too late to start getting active. Being fit is important for everyone. You can benefit from physical activity even if you think of yourself as "elderly" or you already have conditions such as arthritis or heart disease. Being more active will help you feel better and may even help you live longer. If you...

  • During a hospital stay, you may have a higher-than-normal risk of falling. You might get medicines that make you dizzy and more likely to fall. You may get weak and confused because of illness, surgery, or treatments, and you may have a hard time...

  • Learn how activity can help reduce joint pain and how to exercise safely when you have arthritis.

  • Learn about vision aids that can make life easier and safer.

  • Learn how to use lighting and contrast to make your home safer.

  • Practice talking to your smoking friends about your decision to quit.

  • Learn more about leaking urine and why you should talk to your doctor about it.

  • Learn how to do exercises that can help prevent urine leakage.

  • Learn why getting a glaucoma test is important.

  • Learn why taking your osteoporosis medicine is so important.

  • Learn how one older adult started and stayed with a fitness program.

  • Learn how a health crisis motivated others to get active.

  • Learn how to overcome obstacles to getting fit.

  • Picture yourself making physical activity a routine, and practice taking small steps to get started.

  • Find out why you're at risk for falling in the hospital and how to prevent a fall.

  • Learn how to reach out to friends and loved ones for support.

  • Learn why making a plan for getting help when you leave the hospital will help you heal.

  • Learn how knee arthroscopy is done and what to expect after surgery.

  • Relieve pressure on the skin Relieving and spreading out pressure is the most important part of both preventing and treating pressure injuries. Putting pressure on one spot for long periods of time decreases blood flow to that area. This damages or...

  • Older adults and people with long-term diseases often need to take a lot of pills. That can cause problems. If you take more than one medicine that works the same way, you could get too high a dose. Sometimes medicines work against each other . So it's really important to ask every doctor you visit to look at...

  • Learn the pros and cons of having a hip replacement.

  • Learn the pros and cons of having a knee replacement.

  • Hear what other people thought about as they decided whether to have hip replacement surgery.

  • Hear what other people thought about as they decided whether to have knee replacement surgery.

  • Learn about surgery to repair a broken or fractured hip and what to expect.

  • Get tips on how to take care of yourself at home after hip repair surgery.

  • Learn about shoulder replacement surgery.

  • Get tips on how to take care of yourself at home after shoulder replacement surgery.

  • Learn how long it may take to start doing daily activities again after a hip replacement.

  • Learn how long it might take to start doing everyday activities again after a knee replacement.

  • Learn how your discharge plan can help you feel more confident about moving to a care facility.

  • Adult protective underwear may be helpful for a person who has incontinence. A person who has incontinence has trouble controlling urine or stool. This underwear helps absorb urine and catch stool. There are different types of adult protective underwear. A washable kind may be useful when a loved one has trouble with...

  • As we get older, our skin gets more thin and dry, so it is easier to damage. The chance of skin damage is higher for people who can't move much and who spend most of their time in bed or in a wheelchair. The skin can develop rashes and sores, especially pressure injuries. These sores are caused by constant...

  • Lying in one position for a long time can cause pressure injuries. You can help avoid pressure injuries by helping your loved one turn and change position in bed. This is also helpful when you need to do things like change sheets, help with a bedpan, give a back rub, or change a bandage. When helping someone move in...

  • Arthritis hurts. And it can make it harder to move your joints. When you don't move your joints as much, your ligaments, tendons, and muscles can shorten and get weaker. But knee shots, or injections, can help you cope with the pain and be more...

  • Complementary medicine includes many treatments you can use along with standard medical treatment. A lot of people use some form of complementary medicine to treat osteoarthritis. Some of these treatments may help you move more easily and deal with the stress and pain of arthritis. But in some cases, not much is...

  • Painful knee arthritis can keep you from being as active as you need to be. You may not walk as much. You may avoid going up and down stairs. But when you don't move that knee as much, the ligaments, tendons, and muscles around it can shorten and...

  • Learn how osteoarthritis usually begins, and listen to stories of how it can progress differently in different people.

  • Learn about different treatments for knee arthritis other than surgery.

  • Learn about the pros and cons of having knee replacement surgery.

  • Learn how cartilage is replaced by implants in knee replacement surgery.

  • Learn about recovering from knee replacement surgery, and listen to stories about different recovery experiences.

  • Learn about the different treatment options for knee arthritis, and hear stories of what others have tried.

  • Helping or caring for an older adult with diabetes can feel like a lot to take on. There's the challenge of caregiving—because what seems best for someone isn't always what that person wants to do. You may worry about invading your loved one's privacy or free will. There's also the stress of learning how to manage...

  • Spondylosis is age-related change of the bones (vertebrae) and discs of the spine. These changes are often called degenerative disc disease and osteoarthritis. These changes don't always cause symptoms. But they are a common cause of spine problems...

  • Covers causes of hip fractures. Includes list of things that increase risk. Describes symptoms and how hip fractures are diagnosed. Covers treatment choices. Offers prevention tips, including ways to slow osteoporosis.

  • Guides through decision to have a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test for osteoporosis. Explains DXA test. Includes risk factors for osteoporosis you can and cannot change. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Guides you through decision to put a relative who has Alzheimer's or other dementia in long-term care. Lists reasons for and against. Covers types of long-term facilities available. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Normal changes occur in your feet as you age. Feet tend to spread, possibly causing shoe size to change. Have your feet measured each time you buy shoes. Do not assume that your shoe size has not changed. The bottoms of the feet lose the fatty pads...

  • Guides through decision to take medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or enlarged prostate. Lists common medicine choices. Discusses how to manage your symptoms at home. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Some teens and young adults with disabilities such as cerebral palsy or Down syndrome need extra help preparing for independent living. Major independent living skills include preparing meals, managing money, knowing when and where to seek medical...

  • Discusses arthroplasty, joint replacement surgery for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Covers why it is done. Also covers how well it works and the risks.

  • Discusses arthroscopic surgery, used to treat joint pain for those with rheumatoid arthritis. Covers how well it works and the risks.

  • Discusses synovectomy, surgery done to remove inflamed joint tissue resulting from rheumatoid arthritis. Covers why it's done and what to expect after surgery, including a need for physical therapy. Also covers how well it works and risks.

  • There are several surgeries to correct joint problems in the hand caused by rheumatoid arthritis, including: Carpal tunnel release, which involves releasing or cutting a ligament in the wrist to relieve pressure on a nerve that runs through the...

  • The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) worked together to develop the 2010 Rheumatoid Arthritis Classification Criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. The goal is to identify possible...

  • Rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects the joints but can also affect the whole body, causing what are called systemic symptoms. These systemic symptoms occur especially in people who have severe disease. Problems associated with rheumatoid arthritis can develop in the: Eyes. Inflammation of the...

  • Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis are different types of arthritis. They share some similar characteristics, but each has different symptoms and requires different treatment. So an accurate diagnosis is important. Osteoarthritis is the most...

  • Elder abuse refers to any of several forms of maltreatment of an older person by a caregiver, family member, spouse, or friend. Categories of elder abuse The 1987 Amendment to the Older Americans Act identified three separate categories of elder abuse: Domestic elder abuse usually takes place...

  • Guides through decision to have cataract surgery. Describes the surgery and how well it works. Includes when cataract surgery is normally recommended. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • What is Sjögren's syndrome? Sjögren's syndrome (say "SHOH-grins") is a disease in which the immune system attacks the glands that make moisture for the body, such as tears and saliva. The damage keeps the glands from working the way they should and makes your eyes and mouth dry. The disease may also cause other...

  • When rheumatoid arthritis affects the neck joints, particularly those located at the top of the spine, complications can occur. Bones and joints affected by rheumatoid arthritis may dislocate and press on the spinal cord or on the nerve roots....

  • Guides you through the decision to have surgery for stress incontinence. Explains causes of stress incontinence. Lists risks and benefits of surgery. Explains other treatment choices. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Complete one of these records each day for several days, then take the completed records to your doctor. This information will help you and your doctor see how often you leak urine and what seems to cause the leakage. Name: Date: Instructions: Place a check mark in the appropriate column next to the time you urinated...

  • Cataracts may occur in people who also have glaucoma. This commonly occurs in older adults. If you have glaucoma and cataracts, you may consider having surgery for both conditions at the same time. Depending on which condition caused the vision...

  • In the treatment of glaucoma, your eye doctor will try to reduce the risk of damage to your optic nerve by keeping your eye pressure (intraocular pressure, or IOP) from rising above a certain level. That level of pressure is called your target...

  • Covers surgery to replace ends of both bones in a damaged joint to create new joint surfaces. Includes slideshow on hip replacement. Looks at why it is done and how well it works. Discusses what to expect after surgery and living with a hip replacement.

  • You can gently encourage someone who smokes to quit. Think of your comments about smoking as only one event that moves that person toward quitting. Start any discussion of quitting in a gentle way. Let the person know why you want him or her to...

  • Covers surgery to replace the ends of bones in a damaged joint. Includes slideshow on knee replacement. Looks at why surgery is done, risks, and how well it works. Discusses what to expect after surgery and living with a knee replacement.

  • The uroflowmetry test measures the rate of urine flow during urination. Results are usually given in milliliters per second (mL/sec). This test is sometimes used to evaluate the impact benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has on urine flow or to...

  • What are the most important things you need to know about your medicines? Make sure you know about each of the medicines you take. This includes why you take it, how to take it, what you can expect while you're taking it, and any warnings about the medicine. The information provided here is general. So be sure...

  • Covers finger, hand, and wrist problems caused by medical conditions and overuse. Offers symptom check list. Includes worksheet to help you decide when to call a doctor. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Hip pain can make it hard to walk, go up and down stairs, squat, or sleep on the side that hurts. A clicking or snapping feeling or sound around your hip joint (snapping hip) may bother you or cause you to worry. But if your hip is not painful, in many cases the click or snap is nothing to worry about. Home treatment...

  • Includes info on hearing loss. Discusses causes and symptoms like tinnitus, muffled hearing, and vertigo. Covers exams and tests used to diagnose hearing loss. Discusses treatment with medicine, hearing aids, or cochlear implant.

  • A regular exercise program is an important part of anyone's lifestyle. If you have osteoarthritis, check with your health professional before beginning or continuing any exercise so that you can determine whether it is safe and effective for...

  • Capsaicin (Zostrix), available without a prescription, is a pain reliever that comes in a cream that you apply directly to your skin (topical analgesic). It has been found to relieve joint pain from osteoarthritis in some people when rubbed into the...

  • If osteoarthritis in the joints of the hands or feet is so severe that function is impossible (rare with osteoarthritis), surgery may allow some pain-free motion. In the hands, the goal is enough pain-free motion to allow the person to do basic...

  • For moderate to severe pain from osteoarthritis, try applying heat and cold to the affected joints. Experiment with these heat and cold techniques until you find what helps you most. Apply heat 2 or 3 times a day for 20 to 30 minutes, using a...

  • If you have osteoarthritis and your joints hurt when you do an activity, try other ways of doing it that do not cause pain. If you get tired when you do a task for long periods of time, break the task down into several smaller tasks, and rest between them. Avoid extended periods of standing, and try not to kneel or...

  • Covers surgery (osteotomy) to remove a wedge of bone near a damaged joint. Looks at why it is done and what to expect after surgery. Covers physical therapy. Includes info on how well it works and the risks of surgery.

  • Covers the causes and symptoms of osteoarthritis. Covers possible treatments with over-the-counter pain medicines and prescription medicines. Includes info on home treatment for joint pain, including using heat or ice, staying at a healthy weight, and exercise.

  • Weight-bearing exercises, started in your youth and continued throughout your life, can help prevent osteoporosis. These exercises, such as walking, jogging, climbing, dancing, or lifting weights, help you build strong bones as a young person. And...

  • Covers causes and symptoms of osteoporosis in women. Looks at treatment with medicine. Includes steps to slow bone loss with exercise, eating healthy foods, and quitting smoking. Covers protecting yourself from falling to prevent broken bones.

  • A person's medical history and a physical exam are important parts of the evaluation when the person has symptoms of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. The doctor will ask questions during a medical history to assess a person's past and current...

  • A health professional may evaluate the day-to-day functioning of a person who has Alzheimer's disease by asking questions and observing the person. This often is done informally during the medical history and physical exam. Sometimes the health professional may use a more formal functional status exam to evaluate a...

  • Most people who develop Alzheimer's disease do not have a history of the disease in their families. But if you do have a family history of Alzheimer's disease (one or more members of a family have had the disease), then your risk of getting it is...

  • You can help protect the person in your care by making the home safe. Pad sharp corners on furniture and countertops. Keep objects that are often used within easy reach. Install handrails around the toilet and in the shower. Use a tub mat to prevent slipping. Use a shower chair or bath bench when...

  • A person who is aware of losing some mental and functional abilities may be depressed or frightened and may feel like a burden to those who take care of him or her. Helping the person stay active and involved may make it easier for both of you. Take...

  • People who have Alzheimer's disease or another dementia are sometimes easily confused and may forget where they are, what day it is, and other common facts. The following tips will help avoid confusion. Use familiar objects, such as a favorite chair...

  • Getting a person with Alzheimer's disease or another dementia to eat enough may be a challenge in some cases. Some of these tips may help you. If the person resists using a spoon or fork, don't force the issue. Some people may have vision or motor...

  • Communicating with a person who has Alzheimer's disease or another dementia can be very challenging. Changing your approach to the way you communicate may be helpful. First, make sure the person does not have a hearing or vision problem. Sometimes a...

  • Many people with Alzheimer's disease or another dementia can become agitated or upset easily. It may be helpful to: Keep distractions to a minimum. Keep noise levels low and voices quiet. Develop simple daily routines for bathing, dressing, eating,...

  • Loss of bladder and bowel control (incontinence) can sometimes result from Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Several strategies may help you deal with this problem: Encourage the person to use the bathroom on a regular schedule, such as every...

  • Wandering can pose a major problem for the caregiver and can be dangerous for a person who has Alzheimer's disease or another dementia. Get a medical ID bracelet for the person so that you can be contacted if he or she wanders away. Try to figure...

  • Taking care of a loved one who has Alzheimer's disease or another dementia can be a difficult, stressful, and tiring job. It affects the caregiver's health and ability to rest and can be a source of stress and conflict for the entire household. The...

  • A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or another dementia often raises some important legal and financial issues for the future. The person with dementia should be involved in these decisions as long as he or she is able and willing to be involved....

  • One of the most difficult problems to deal with as a caregiver is the sometimes strange or disruptive behaviors that people with dementia develop. They may wander, do certain things repeatedly, or insist on unusual routines or activities. Some...

  • The decision to try medicine to treat behavior problems in Alzheimer's disease is different for each person. The decision weighs the risks and benefits of these medicines. Your doctor can help you decide. Medicines for behavior problems linked to dementia do not work very well for most people and may have serious risks...

  • Discusses a form of mental decline (also called dementia). Looks at possible causes. Covers symptoms like memory loss or changes in mood or behavior. Covers treatment with medicines to help with memory and thinking problems. Offers tips for caregivers.

  • As we get older, the lower eyelids sometimes start to droop away from the eyeball. Drooping is the result of reduced muscle tone in the muscles that control the eyelids. If your lower eyelids droop outward, away from the eye ( ectropion), they may no longer be able to protect your eyes, and your eyes may become dry...

  • The main treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) is injections of medicines into the eye. But in some cases, doctors recommend laser surgery. Retinal laser photocoagulation is a type of laser surgery that uses an intense beam of light to burn small areas of the retina. The burns form scar tissue...

  • What is age-related macular degeneration? Age-related macular degeneration is a disease that causes blurring of your central vision. The blurring happens because of damage to the macula, a small area at the back of the eye. The macula helps you see the fine detail in things that your eyes are focusing on. Macular...

  • If you have trouble moving around or if you become tired easily because of multiple sclerosis (MS), it may help to make some changes in your home. For instance, it might be helpful to: Change the location of furniture so that you can hold on to...

  • If a person's HIV infection progresses, you may be called on to provide home care for that person. A home care course may give you the knowledge, skills, and confidence to provide the care needed. Contact your local Red Cross chapter, Visiting Nurse...

  • Keep a daily diary of all liquids taken in and all urine released, whether voluntary or involuntary. Your health professional may also call this a voiding log, bladder record, frequency-volume chart, incontinence chart, or voiding diary. The diary...

  • Kegel exercises make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These muscles control your urine flow and help hold your pelvic organs in place. Doctors often prescribe Kegels for: Stress incontinence. This means leaking urine when you laugh, cough, sneeze, jog, or lift something heavy. Urge...

  • A bladder stress test simulates the accidental release of urine ( urinary incontinence) that may occur when you cough, sneeze, laugh, or exercise. A Bonney test is done as part of the bladder stress test, after the doctor verifies that urine is lost with coughing. It is similar to the bladder stress test except the...

  • Urodynamic tests for urinary incontinence are measurements taken to evaluate your bladder's function and efficiency. The actual tests done vary from person to person. Some urodynamic tests are relatively simple and can be done in a doctor's office. Other tests require expensive and sophisticated instruments to measure...

  • Retropubic suspension surgery is used to treat urinary incontinence by lifting the sagging bladder neck and urethra that have dropped abnormally low in the pelvic area. Retropubic suspension is abdominal surgery, where access to the bladder and urethra is gained by making an incision in the abdominal (belly) wall. This...

  • Urethral sling surgery, also called mid-urethral sling surgery, is done to treat urinary incontinence. A sling is placed around the urethra to lift it back into a normal position and to exert pressure on the urethra to aid urine retention. The sling is attached to the abdominal (belly) wall. The sling material may be...

  • Urethral bulking to treat urinary incontinence involves injecting material (such as collagen) around the urethra. This may be done to: Close a hole in the urethra through which urine leaks out. Build up the thickness of the wall of the urethra so it seals tightly when you hold back urine. Most bulking materials are...

  • Several types of behavioral methods are used for treating urinary incontinence: bladder training, habit training, biofeedback, and pelvic muscle exercises. People who have incontinence due to physical or mental limitations ( functional incontinence) can try timed voiding and prompted voiding. Bladder training...

  • Electrical stimulation is used to treat urinary incontinence by sending a mild electric current to nerves in the lower back or the pelvic muscles that are involved in urination. You may be able to provide electrical stimulation therapy at home using a unit with a vaginal or anal electrode. Timing and duration of...

  • Absorbent products are items that absorb urine, such as adult diapers, plastic-coated underwear, pads, or panty liners that attach to underwear. Most commercially available items are disposable (such as Depend or Poise). Some absorbent cloths can be washed and reused. Drip collectors that fit over the penis are also...

  • Discusses urinary incontinence in women. Looks at types of incontinence, including stress and urge incontinence. Covers causes and symptoms. Discusses treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Some people who have a stroke suffer loss of bladder control (urinary incontinence) after the stroke. But this is usually temporary. And it can have many causes, including infection, constipation, and the effects of medicines. If you have problems...

  • Looks at surgery for children who have congenital glaucoma. Covers risks and how well it works.

  • People who have sickle cell disease can sometimes have vision problems. Blood cells that change shape, or "sickle," can get trapped in blood vessels, blocking the blood flow. When this blockage occurs in the small blood vessels in the inner lining...

  • You can slow the onset of osteoporosis or reduce its impact if you form habits that build and strengthen your bones. It is best if you start healthy habits early in life, but it's never too late. Habits that build and strengthen bones include:...

  • Guides through decision to have prostate surgery for BPH. Lists benefits and risks of surgery. Discusses taking medicine to treat your enlarged prostate instead. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • What is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)? Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate gland. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. As the prostate gets bigger, it may squeeze or partly block the urethra. This often causes problems with...

  • If your vision is 20/50 (20/20 is normal) or worse because of a cataract, you may benefit from surgery. If your vision is 20/40 and you have severe glare problems or require good vision for work (for example, you drive for a living), surgery may...

  • For cataracts A cataract—a clouding of the lens of the eye—blocks the normal passage of light through the eye. Surgery for cataracts involves removing the natural lens of the eye that contains the cataract and either replacing it with an artificial lens called an intraocular lens implant (IOL) or compensating...

  • After surgery to remove a cataract: Use eyedrops as prescribed by your doctor. Wash your hands before putting drops in your eye. Be careful not to touch your eye with your hands or the tip of the medicine dropper. Protect your eye. Do not rub or...

  • A cataract is a painless, cloudy area in the lens of the eye. The lens is enclosed in a lining called the lens capsule. Cataract surgery separates the cataract from the lens capsule. In most cases, the lens will be replaced with an intraocular lens implant (IOL). If an IOL cannot be used, contact lenses or eyeglasses...

  • Discusses laser surgery called Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy. Covers cloudiness that may happen after cataract surgery, sometimes called aftercataract. Discusses why surgery is done, how well it works, and risks.

  • Discusses vision problems caused by cataracts, a painless, cloudy area in lens of eye. Covers symptoms like fuzzy vision, glare from lamps or sun, and frequent changes to eyeglass prescription. Discusses treatment with surgery. Also discusses vision aids.

  • Sleep patterns naturally change as you get older. Compared to younger people, older adults: Sleep fewer hours and take longer to fall asleep. Sleep less deeply and wake up more often during the night. Have more trouble adjusting to changes in...

  • The following tips may make it easier to deal with your benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms. Practice "double voiding" by urinating as much as possible, relaxing for a few moments, and then urinating again. Try to relax before you urinate....

  • During transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), an instrument is inserted up the urethra to remove the section of the prostate that is blocking urine flow. TURP usually requires a stay in the hospital. It is done using a general or spinal anesthetic.

  • Discusses traditional surgery to remove an enlarged prostate. Covers what to expect after surgery and risks. Links to info on TURP.

  • Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP) may be done to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The surgeon uses an instrument inserted into the urethra that generates an electric current or laser beam to make incisions in the prostate where the prostate meets the bladder. Cutting muscle in this area relaxes the...

  • When you have Parkinson's disease, you may find that making simple changes to your home and in your daily activities can help you stay independent for a longer time. Simplifying your daily activities may help you to save your energy for activities...

  • Covers causes and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Looks at treatment with medicine, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Discusses things you can do at home to relieve your symptoms and help control the disease. Includes importance of regular checkups.

  • Assess changes in your child's behavior that might mean a hearing loss. Compare present behavior with past behavior. Does your child: Listen to speech? Turn to you when you speak? Smile when spoken to? Seem to recognize your voice? Quiet his or her crying when you speak? Startle or cry at noises? Awaken to loud...

  • Assess changes in your child's behavior that might mean a hearing loss. Compare present behavior with past behavior. Does your child: Respond to changes in your voice? Look around for the source of sounds? Notice toys that make sound?

  • Assess changes in your child's behavior that might mean a hearing loss. Compare past behavior with present behavior. Does your child: Listen when spoken to? Turn or look up when you call his or her name? Respond to requests like "come here" or "want more?" Recognize words for common items like cup, shoe, or juice?

  • Assess changes in your child's behavior that might mean a hearing loss. Compare present behavior with past behavior. Also, pay attention to the quality of your child's speech. Children must be able to hear well for normal speech and language to develop. Does your child: Listen to simple stories, songs, or rhymes...

  • Assess changes in your child's behavior that might indicate a hearing loss. Compare present behavior with past behavior. Does your child: Follow two requests, such as "Get the ball and put it on the table?" Continue to notice sounds, such as a telephone ringing, television sounds, or knocking at the door?

  • There are many studies being done to look at whether certain vitamin and mineral supplements and combinations of supplements may help prevent age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or delay vision loss in people who already have it. For example, the...

  • A low-vision evaluation will help you and your doctor find ways to make the best use of your remaining vision. Your doctor will ask questions to find out how your vision loss has affected your life and what changes you have already made to cope with...

  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD). It is not used to treat dry AMD. Photodynamic therapy may be recommended if you can't have injections of medicines to treat your AMD or if these injections don't work. In photodynamic therapy, a light-sensitive medicine...

  • There are many things you can do to make living with low vision easier and safer. Low-vision rehabilitation specialists can give you detailed information and training on doing your household tasks and other activities that can be more challenging...

  • Most injuries are not caused by abuse. But bruises are often the first sign of possible abuse. Suspect physical abuse of a child or vulnerable adult when: Any injury cannot be explained or does not match the explanation. Repeated injuries occur. Explanations change for how the injury happened. You may be able to...

  • Eyelid problems may be caused by irritation or infection. Common symptoms are redness, swelling, itching, and excess tearing; some drainage may also be present. Common symptoms of a stye (hordeolum) include swelling and tenderness or a tender red lump on the eyelid with occasional discharge from the lump. A chalazion...

  • Children Some hearing problems can delay your child's speech and language development. Early screening for hearing loss can help prevent many learning, social, and emotional problems that can be related to speech and language development. Call your doctor if at any time you suspect your child has a hearing problem...

  • If you or your doctor thinks you may be at risk for osteoporosis, you may have a screening test to check your bone thickness. A screening test may be advisable if you have: A fracture in a minor injury that may have been caused by osteoporosis. Another medical condition that is known to cause bone...

  • Whether a person with Alzheimer's disease or another dementia should still be allowed to drive is a common dilemma faced by people who have the disease and by their caregivers. Taking away driving privileges may reduce the person's sense of independence and increase dependence on family and friends. But it is extremely...

  • Guides you through decision to take bisphosphonate medicines for osteoporosis. Lists medicine names like alendronate (Fosamax) and risedronate (Actonel). Lists risks and benefits. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • The risk of getting osteoporosis increases with age as bones naturally become thinner. After age 30, the rate at which your bone tissue dissolves and is absorbed by the body slowly increases, while the rate of bone building decreases. So overall you lose a small amount of bone each year after age 30. In women, bone...

  • Medicines that damage the ear and cause hearing loss are known as ototoxic medicines. They are a common cause of hearing loss, especially in older adults who have to take medicine on a regular basis. In most cases, hearing loss occurs because the medicine damages the cochlea in the inner ear. Hearing loss caused by an...

  • What is a cochlear implant? A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that can help "make" sound if you have a certain type of severe hearing loss in both ears. The implant does the job of the damaged or absent nerve cells that in a normal ear make it possible to hear. Cochlear implants can be programmed...

  • Hearing loss caused by noise can occur in people of any age. It may develop suddenly or gradually, depending on the source and intensity of the noise. Noise can affect hearing in several ways. When a sudden, extremely loud sound, such as an explosion, a gunshot, or a firecracker close to the ear, damages any of the...

  • The effects of noise on hearing vary among people. Some people's ears are more sensitive to loud sounds, especially at certain frequencies. (Frequency means how low or high a tone is.) But any sound that is loud enough and lasts long enough can damage hearing and lead to hearing loss. A sound's loudness is measured in...

  • Being exposed to loud noises can result in hearing loss . As the loudness of a sound increases, the amount of time you can safely listen to the sound decreases. One way to protect your hearing is to wear hearing protectors, which reduce the loudness of the sound. Hearing protectors are especially important for those...

  • Age-related hearing loss, known as presbycusis, affects most older adults to some degree. The most frequent cause of age-related hearing loss is the natural breakdown of nerve cells in the inner ear. Sound reaches the inner ear, but the breakdown of nerve cells prevents proper hearing. This is known as sensorineural...

  • Interactive tool to help you figure out whether you want treatment for urinary symptoms from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Provides links to more detailed info on BPH and decision tools for treatment options.

  • The following suggestions may help you develop a plan to help a family member who has an ongoing problem with memory, problem solving, judgment, or the ability to handle daily tasks. These suggestions are basic and do not include all the information you will need to care for your family member. Your doctor may have...

  • By the age of 4, your child may tell you he or she is having trouble hearing or understanding others. You can ask your child questions about his or her hearing. You can also assess changes in your child's behavior that might mean a hearing loss. Compare present behavior with past behavior. Does your child: Follow...

  • What is healthy aging? Getting older is a natural part of life. How you will feel as you get older depends on many things, including what health problems run in your family and the choices you make. If you take good care of your body and learn positive ways to deal with stress now, you can slow down or even prevent...

  • What are pressure injuries? A pressure injury on the skin is caused by constant pressure to that area. This often occurs when a person lies in bed or sits in a chair for a long time. Pressure reduces blood supply to the skin. Over time, this can cause the skin to break down and form an open sore. Pressure injuries are...

  • Guides you through decision to put a loved one who has had a stroke into long-term care. Lists reasons for and against. Covers types of long-term centers. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • What is low bone density? Low bone density (sometimes called osteopenia) refers to bone density that is lower than the normal peak density but not low enough to be classified as osteoporosis. Bone density is a measurement of how dense and strong the bones are. If your bone density is low compared to normal peak...

  • Assistive devices and orthotics are tools that help you hold objects, open and close things, transfer weight while shifting positions, or walk. It is important to find a balance between use and rest of a painful (arthritic) joint. When exercise is not enough to control pain, assistive devices and orthotics may help to...

  • Covers exercises that are helpful for a person with osteoarthritis. Includes aerobic, strength, and flexibility exercises, and tips to motivate yourself. Includes things to avoid. Looks at why it is important to exercise and gives tips on how to exercise.

  • Most people find osteoarthritis to be a nuisance that eventually becomes significant enough to affect their daily activities. And sometimes there are more serious complications. Possible complications of osteoarthritis include: Rapid, complete breakdown of cartilage resulting in loose tissue material in the joint...

  • When considering moving into a nursing home, also called a resident care facility, you can take steps to make sure you select the place that best meets your needs. Visit several nursing homes with your family. Most nursing homes have an admissions coordinator who is able to answer your questions and show you the...

  • A cataract is a painless, cloudy area in the lens of the eye that blocks the passage of light to the retina, the nerve layer at the back of the eye, usually causing vision problems. Cataracts are rare in babies and children. But a child may be born...

  • Many people take oral or inhaled steroid medicines for conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These medicines include beclomethasone, flunisolide, and prednisone. The oral kind and the high-dose inhaled kind can cause bone loss over time. If you are on these types of medicines for 6...

  • Discusses taking calcium and vitamin D to prevent or treat osteoporosis. Includes info on how much calcium you need based on your age or life stage. Offers list of calcium-rich foods and calcium supplements.

  • Guides you through decision to take medicines for Alzheimer's disease. Covers medicine choices and their side effects. Lists reasons for and against taking medicines. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Describes disease and factors that increase risk. Covers symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options.

  • People in recovery from coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery may need assistance from family members and friends in a variety of ways. You may help your loved one for several weeks during recovery with a number of tasks, including shopping, cleaning, and driving. You can also help support your loved one in making...

  • Protecting babies Each new learning stage for your baby requires increased attention on your part to prevent an injury. It may surprise you how fast your baby can move from one stage to the next. Being aware of your baby's abilities and what skills he or she is likely to develop next will help you prevent...

  • Developing and nurturing your personal relationships can help you lower your stress level. The following suggestions can benefit both your relationships and your mental health: Visit with friends and family. Take time to make a phone call, send an email, or write a quick note. Make "date" time with your spouse, even...

  • Discusses causes of dementia, which include strokes, tumors, or Alzheimer's disease. Covers symptoms like memory loss and forgetfulness. Covers how dementia is diagnosed. Looks at treatment options. Covers issues for caregivers.

  • Some people have memory loss but do not have dementia. They have what is known as mild cognitive impairment, a middle ground between normal aging and dementia. People with this condition are at risk for developing dementia. But not all people with mild cognitive impairment will progress to dementia. People with mild...

  • Herbal supplements that may be used to relieve symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) include beta-sitosterol, cernilton , Pygeum africanum, and saw palmetto. In general, the trials using these substances have been short, and self-reported improvement scores can be biased. Different preparations are available...

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) rarely has complications. When it does, they are often due to severe obstruction of the urine flow. These complications include: Complete blockage of the urethra (acute urinary retention, or AUR). This results in a complete inability to urinate. It can cause kidney damage, which may...

  • In transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT), an instrument (called an antenna) that sends out microwave energy is inserted through the urethra to a location inside the prostate. Microwave energy is then used to heat the inside of the prostate. Cooling fluid is circulated around the microwave antenna to prevent heat from...

  • Having good nutrition is important at any age. But it is especially important for older adults. Eating a healthy diet can help keep your body strong and can help lower your risk for disease. But as you get older, it can be harder to eat in healthy...

  • Tips for older adults and people who have had a stroke or have multiple sclerosis or osteoporosis to help prevent falls and injuries. Covers taking care of your health and making changes in your home. Covers preventing falls in the bathroom and outdoors.

  • What is spondylosis? Spondylosis is age-related change of the bones (vertebrae) and discs of the spine. These changes are often called degenerative disc disease and osteoarthritis. These changes don't always cause symptoms. But they are a common cause of spine problems that can range from mild to severe. What causes...

  • When you leave a rehabilitation (rehab) center for your home after a spinal cord injury (SCI), you need to have your home ready for your special needs. Following are some of the adaptations and adaptive equipment you may need. Talk with your rehab team about what you will need specifically and the best way to proceed...

  • Dental care for older people is much the same as for younger adults. But older adults do have concerns that younger adults do not. These may include: Caring for dentures. Having trouble holding a toothbrush. Having gum disease. Having tooth decay on the roots of teeth. Replacing missing teeth and broken fillings...

  • Health problems like cancer or heart disease and mental health problems like substance use disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have an emotional side. And the same is true for certain life events, like being a parent or caring for...

  • Many people think substance use disorder happen only to teens and younger adults. But all ages can have problems with drugs and alcohol, including older adults. Older adults may use illegal drugs, misuse prescription or over-the-counter medicines,...

  • If someone you care about has been diagnosed with depression, you may feel helpless. Maybe you're watching a once-vibrant person slide into inactivity or seeing a good friend lose interest in activities that he or she used to enjoy. The change in your loved one's or friend's behavior may be so great that you feel you no...

  • So you've decided to change your eating habits. Great! Have you thought about getting support in making this change? Having the support of people close to you is an important part of change. It doesn't matter if you're changing a job, a routine, or...

  • You've made a big decision. You're going to quit smoking. Quitting is hard, and you probably know this. Maybe you've quit before. If so, that's normal. Most people quit many times. What can you do to make it more likely that you'll kick the habit for good? One important part of quitting smoking is getting help from...

  • Your partner or friend has decided it's time to quit smoking. This is great news. You're excited, and you want to help. But you don't want your partner or friend to feel that you're coming on too strong or that you're "checking up" on him or her. This Actionset will give you tips on helping someone who is trying to...

  • What is depression in older adults? Depression is an illness that causes you to feel sad or hopeless much of the time. It is different from normal feelings of sadness, grief, or low energy. Some people think that depression is normal with age. But it's not. Older adults may go through major life changes or challenges...

  • Susan's depression started in college. "I was a kid, and I had really bad self-esteem issues. I was making dumb choices," she says. Now Susan is 43, married, and a mother of four. Over the years, her depression has changed. Sometimes, it's felt as if hard times have brought it on. At other points in her life, the...

  • Covers creating and following a plan to help manage symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Discusses early treatment with exercise and medicine to limit joint damage. Includes tips for coping with chronic joint pain, fatigue, and stiffness.

  • What is overflow incontinence? Overflow incontinence is the involuntary release of urine—due to a weak bladder muscle or to blockage—when the bladder becomes overly full, even though the person feels no urge to urinate. What are the symptoms? Symptoms of overflow incontinence include: The sudden release of urine...

  • Total incontinence is the continuous and total loss of urinary control. One cause is neurogenic bladder. This is a neurological problem that prevents the bladder from emptying as it should. Spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and other disorders that affect nerve function can also lead to total incontinence. In...

  • Functional incontinence occurs when some obstacle or disability makes it hard for you to reach or use a toilet in time to urinate. It is often caused by: A problem with walking (such as needing a walker or crutches) that prevents you from reaching a toilet in time to urinate. A medical condition (such as arthritis)...

  • Stress incontinence in women can cause frequent involuntary release of urine during activities that put pressure on your bladder, such as coughing or laughing. The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure is designed to provide support for a sagging urethra so that when you cough or move vigorously or suddenly, the...

  • Exercise can reduce pain and improve function in people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, exercise may help prevent the buildup of scar tissue, which can lead to weakness and stiffness. Exercise for arthritis takes three forms: stretching, strengthening, and conditioning. Stretching involves moving...

  • Guides through decision to have knee replacement surgery for osteoarthritis. Describes other surgeries and treatment options used to decrease osteoarthritis pain. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Guides through decision to have hip replacement surgery. Discusses what happens in hip replacement and what to expect after surgery. Offers interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Both prostate cancer and its treatment may cause urinary problems. Urinary problems caused by prostate cancer The urethra—the tube that carries urine from your bladder and through your penis—passes through the middle of the prostate gland. When the prostate presses against the urethra, you can have trouble...

  • Guides through decision to have surgery for Dupuytren's disease. Includes other treatments for Dupuytren's disease. Describes the two types of surgery usually done. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • You don't see as well as you used to. Eye problems such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, cataracts, or diabetic retinopathy may be making it hard to work and manage many of your daily activities. But don't give up. There are lots of things you can do to adapt to low vision and make your life easier...

  • Vision aids can help you in many of your daily activities. Here are lists of vision aids used in different areas. Which ones might help you? Cooking Vision aids for cooking include: Large-print, ringing, or talking cooking timer. Large-print or marked control dials for stove, oven, and other kitchen appliances...

  • Guides through decision to get hearing aids. Explains the types of hearing aids, how they work, and how they are best used. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Covers making your home fall-proof to prevent injuries. Looks at common hazards like clutter and throw rugs. Discusses simple changes you can make in your home and the way you do some activities to reduce risk of falling.

  • Discusses urinary incontinence in men. Looks at types of incontinence, including stress, urge, overflow, total, and functional. Covers causes and symptoms. Covers treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Catheters used to manage urinary incontinence include: Standard catheter. This is a thin, flexible, hollow tube that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder and allows the urine to drain out. The standard catheter is used for intermittent self-catheterization. Indwelling Foley...

  • Urge incontinence is a need to urinate that is so strong that you cannot reach the toilet in time. It can occur even when the bladder contains only a small amount of urine. Urge incontinence can be caused by bladder contractions that are too strong to be stopped by the bladder outlet valve (sphincter). This results in...

  • Stress incontinence occurs when a man unintentionally releases a small amount of urine when he coughs, laughs, strains, lifts, or changes posture. It is most common after a man has had his prostate gland removed and there was damage to the nerves or to the external bladder outlet valve (sphincter). After a man's...

  • An artificial sphincter is a device made of silicone rubber that is used to treat urinary incontinence. An artificial sphincter has an inflatable cuff that fits around the urethra close to the point where it joins the bladder. A balloon regulates the pressure of the cuff, and a bulb controls inflation and deflation of...

  • After a stroke, problems with your vision, speech, or ability to move can change your ability to drive safely. So you'll need to get approval to drive again. This may be hard to accept. You may feel that this is a big loss of independence. But this approval is for the safety of yourself and others. Talk with your...

  • You can use paraffin wax (may be called either paraffin or wax) to apply moist heat to your hands or feet to ease the pain and stiffness of osteoarthritis. Paraffin especially helps to reduce pain and loosen up your hand and finger joints before exercise. You should talk with your doctor before trying paraffin at...

  • Covers shoulder surgery to replace the ends of bones in a damaged joint. Includes what to expect after surgery, continued recovery, and living with a shoulder replacement. Looks at why it is done, how well it works, and the risks of surgery.

  • Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is surgery that replaces the damaged outer surfaces of the femoral head found at the top of the thighbone and, if needed, the cup-shaped socket where the thighbone meets the pelvis in the hip joint. People younger than about age 55 who have hip osteoarthritis have been difficult to help...

  • In older adults, hip fractures are usually caused by a fall. Even a slight fall can sometimes cause a fracture in a weakened hipbone. Children and young adults are more likely to break a hip because of a bike or car accident or a sports injury. Falls cause more fractures—including hip fractures—as people age because...

  • During childhood and teen years, new bone grows faster than existing bone is absorbed by the body. After age 30, this process begins to reverse. As a natural part of aging, bone dissolves and is absorbed faster than new bone is made, and bones become thinner. You are more likely to have osteoporosis if you did not reach...

  • Guides through decision to stop driving because of age. Discusses how aging affects the ability to drive and when it is time to stop driving. Offers other transportation options. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

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