Health Library

The Health Library is a collection of health and wellness resources created for learning and accessibility. Select a topic below for related health information or search for a topic in the search bar for more information on other medical conditions.

Physical Therapy

  • Learn how being active builds a strong core and keeps your back healthy.

  • Learn how to safely get up after a fall and what to do if you need to call for help.

  • Learn what to expect during hip replacement surgery and how it can ease the pain of arthritis.

  • Learn how to fix some common tripping hazards around your home.

  • Learn how to do the hamstring stretch exercise in a doorway to stretch the back of your leg.

  • Learn how to prevent blood clots in leg veins when you must sit or lie down for long periods of time.

  • Your calf muscle is actually two muscles, the gastrocnemius muscle and the soleus muscle. These muscles can be injured if they get overstretched. Injury to a calf muscle can range from a strain or pull that you can treat at home to a more serious...

  • Learn what knee osteoarthritis is and what may cause it.

  • Covers surgery to replace the ball, but not the socket, of the hip joint. Looks at why it is done and how well it works. Discusses what to expect after surgery and living with a hip replacement.

  • What is a posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury? A PCL injury is a sprain or tear of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The PCL is a band of tissue that crosses inside the center of the knee joint. It connects your thighbone to the bone of your lower leg. The PCL keeps your knee stable when it moves forward...

  • A fifth metatarsal Jones fracture is a break or a thin, hairline crack in the long bone on the outside of the foot. A Jones fracture occurs near the end of this bone that is closest to the ankle. A Jones fracture can happen when a person jumps or...

  • If you've had surgery on your back or belly, an injury to your trunk, or pain in your back, then you know that bending and twisting can cause more pain or injury. Movements that would normally be easy and automatic may be hard or unsafe until you...

  • Getting into a car can be hard when you have mobility problems. Learn how to get in and out safely and what tools might make it easier.

  • Help prevent blood clots with ankle pumps. They're easy, and really important.

  • Learn how to do glute sets to strengthen the muscles in your butt that help rotate and extend your legs.

  • Strengthen your thigh muscles with short-arc quad exercises.

  • Strengthen your thigh muscles with the long-arc quad exercise.

  • Strengthen the thigh muscles that help support your knee by doing short-arc (terminal) knee extension exercises.

  • Heel raises strengthen your lower leg muscles, which help support your knees, ankles, and feet.

  • Riding a stationary bike is great for increasing the strength and mobility of your knees and legs.

  • Single-leg balance exercises improve balance and strengthen the muscles that support the knees.

  • Strengthen your glutes, quadriceps, and hamstrings with step-up and step-down exercises.

  • Straight-leg raises strengthen the muscles in the front of your thighs and your hips.

  • Quad sets can strengthen your quad muscles—the muscles in the front of your thigh that help straighten your knee.

  • Chair push-ups can strengthen your arm muscles.

  • Heel slides strengthen the muscles that bend your hip and your knee.

  • Hip abduction exercises strengthen the muscles that move your leg out to the side.

  • Passive knee extension exercises will help you be able to fully straighten your leg.

  • Stretch the muscles in the back of your lower leg with this seated calf stretch.

  • Stretch the muscles in the back of your thighs with this seated hamstring stretch.

  • Strengthen your knee and increase its range of movement with this seated knee flexion exercise.

  • Learn more about doing rehab right after knee replacement surgery, so you can find that sweet spot between resting and getting stronger.

  • Learn how to safely help a person get in and out of a car.

  • You're part of the team that keeps your child safe in the hospital. Here's how to prevent a fall.

  • Minor arm injuries are common. Symptoms often develop from everyday wear and tear, overuse, or an injury. Arm injuries are often caused by: Sports or hobbies. Work-related tasks. Work or projects around the home. Your child may injure his or her arm during sports or play or from accidental falls. The chance of...

  • Covers problems like swelling or arm pain caused by overuse, arthritis, and hormone changes. Links to info on bursitis and osteoarthritis. Includes tool to help you decide when to call a doctor. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Every year, thousands of older adults fall and hurt themselves. Falls are one of the main causes of injury and disability in people age 65 and older. Those who fall once are 2 to 3 times more likely to fall again. Hip fractures are especially serious, and most of them are caused by falling. Falls are often caused by...

  • As people age, they lose muscle strength, which can make them more likely to fall. Also, their reflexes slow down. This makes it harder for them to regain their balance if they start to fall. Learn some strength and balance exercises, and take the time to do them each day. This can help you stay active and...

  • Most people will have a minor back problem at one time or another. Our body movements usually do not cause problems, but it's not surprising that symptoms develop from everyday wear and tear, overuse, or injury. Back problems and injuries often occur during sports or recreational activities, work-related tasks, or home...

  • After being away from sports since his college days, Steve decided it was time to get back in shape and back into the game. Squash (an indoor racquet sport) and weight training topped his list of activities to enjoy again. And he did for a while—until arthritis turned his enjoyment into pain. First signs of pain...

  • Bev isn't letting the pain of arthritis in her hands and back keep her from doing her favorite activity—gardening. Nor does she let it keep her from doing anything else in her life. She has found ways to help reduce the pain that allow her to still enjoy the simple pleasures in life, like seeing the season's first...

  • Exercise is one of the best things you can do to help keep your muscles strong and reduce joint pain and stiffness. And it can help you reach and stay at a healthy weight. But you want to make sure that you don't hurt your joints when you exercise. Before you get started, ask your doctor what kind of activity would...

  • The pain and stiffness from arthritis may make it hard for you to do your daily tasks. For instance, if you have problems with your hands or fingers, you may find it hard to type or to open and close a door. If you have problems with your hips or knees, it may be hard to go up and down stairs or get in and out of a...

  • When you find out that you have osteoarthritis, you may be scared and worried about how it may change your life, work, and relationships. It's hard to know how fast your arthritis may progress. Your symptoms may come and go, stay the same, or get worse over time. Some days you may feel fine and be able to do the things...

  • Guides through decision to have shoulder replacement surgery. Discusses what happens in shoulder replacement and what to expect after surgery. Also covers other treatments that you might try to manage osteoarthritis. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Includes links to info on back and neck pain. Also includes links to info on drugs used to treat back and neck pain, and guides to help you decide among treatment options.

  • After breast surgery (mastectomy), you may feel some pain going down your arm. Your shoulder and arm may be stiff and hard to move. You may also have some loss of feeling there. The basic exercises described here will help you start moving your arm....

  • Learn how to use your walker correctly so you can stay stable and safe.

  • Learn how to use heat and ice to treat pain from arthritis.

  • Massage can help relax your tense muscles and relieve pain for a short time. There are a number of products on the market that can help you massage your own back muscles. Or you can give yourself a back massage using a tennis ball. First take a hot...

  • When you have low back pain, try these steps to help you move from sitting to standing: If you are in a chair with arms, scoot forward until you are on the edge of the seat. Bring your feet in toward the chair. Then stand up. Use the arms of the...

  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in children and teens are less common than in adults. But they do occur, especially in teens. An injury that hasn't been treated (or one in which the treatment didn't work) can lead to future knee problems....

  • Water exercise uses water for resistance. It also may be called water therapy, pool therapy, aqua therapy, or aquatics. It's good exercise for many people who have osteoarthritis, back pain, or fibromyalgia. It's often used to help people in rehab...

  • Surgery is usually the best treatment for a broken (fractured) hip. Three types of surgery can be used. Hip repair (internal fixation). Hip repair involves stabilizing broken bones with surgical screws, nails, rods, or plates. This type of surgery is usually for people who have fractures in which the...

  • You may already know that being more active is one of the best things you can do to improve your health and quality of life. But you may wonder how you can be active if you can't stand up to exercise. No matter how old you are, how fit you are, or what health problems you have, there is a form of exercise that will work...

  • If you have injuries, health problems, or other reasons that may make it easy for you to fall at home, it is a good idea to learn how to get up safely after a fall. Learning how to get up correctly can help you avoid making an injury worse. Also,...

  • Learn how to prevent falls by taking care of yourself, preparing your home, and following a few safety tips.

  • Learn how to keep your core strong and prevent injury with two simple exercises.

  • Most people who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) are women in their child-bearing years. Questions about whether MS affects getting pregnant or about labor and delivery are common. Here are some answers: Most couples in which one partner has MS are able to have children without MS affecting the...

  • Learn what to expect during knee replacement surgery and how it can ease the pain of arthritis.

  • Learn how the Epley maneuver can help you get rid of your vertigo.

  • Learn simple head movements to help with vertigo and balance problems.

  • What is an MCL injury? An MCL injury is a sprain or tear to the medial collateral ligament. The MCL is a band of tissue on the inside of your knee. It connects your thighbone to the bone of your lower leg. The MCL keeps the knee from bending inward. You can hurt your MCL during activities that involve bending...

  • Learn how to sit and lift correctly to keep your back healthy.

  • Learn how using crutches the right way will help you stay stable and safe while you heal.

  • Learn how to use your cane correctly so you can stay stable and safe.

  • Learn what causes most falls and what you can do to stay safe.

  • Learn how getting an eye exam may help you stay safe and independent.

  • Learn how to do a simple exercise to strengthen your core and prevent falls.

  • Learn how some medicines can make you dizzy or drowsy and how you can stay safe.

  • Learn how to do two exercises to improve your strength and balance.

  • Learn to spot hazards in your home by using a home safety checklist.

  • What does "high-risk" mean? High-risk means that a medicine can cause serious health problems or accidents. High-risk doesn't always mean "do not use." It can mean "use with care" when a medicine is more likely to help you than harm you. If you take a medicine that may make you feel confused, drowsy, or dizzy...

  • Osgood-Schlatter disease is a knee problem that causes pain and swelling in the shinbone (tibia) just below the kneecap (patella). This is the spot where the patellar tendon attaches to a bony mound in the knee called the tibial tubercle. Older...

  • Learn the right way to lift objects to protect your back.

  • Learn an easy way to give yourself a back massage using a tennis ball.

  • Get ideas about tools and changes to your home that can simplify your daily life.

  • Learn when and how to use ice and heat to relieve low back pain.

  • During a hospital stay, you may have a higher-than-normal risk of falling. You might get medicines that make you dizzy and more likely to fall. You may get weak and confused because of illness, surgery, or treatments, and you may have a hard time...

  • Learn easy ways to protect your back when you get in and out of bed and while you sleep.

  • Learn how activity can help reduce joint pain and how to exercise safely when you have arthritis.

  • Learn steps you can take at home to reduce pain and swelling after a sprain or strain.

  • Learn how to take care of your cast or splint at home.

  • Learn how to use a compression wrap for a sprained ankle to help control swelling.

  • Learn how to wear a sling to protect an injured arm.

  • Learn how to do the bird dog exercise to increase strength and stability in your shoulder, core, and hips.

  • Learn how to do the bridging exercise to increase strength and stability in your core and your legs.

  • Learn how to do curl-ups to strengthen your core.

  • Learn how to do the hip flexor stretch exercise to stretch the muscles in the front of your thigh.

  • Learn how to do the pelvic tilt exercise to strengthen your core.

  • Learn how to do the press-up exercise to stretch your belly muscles and increase flexibility in your lower back.

  • Learn how to do the single knee-to-chest exercise to stretch your hip and lower back.

  • Learn how to do the wall sit exercise to increase strength and stability in your core and your legs.

  • Learn how to use lighting and contrast to make your home safer.

  • Hear what others thought about as they decided whether to have herniated disc surgery.

  • Compare pros and cons, including risks and benefits, of having herniated disc surgery.

  • Learn how surgery can repair a herniated disc and how long it takes to recover.

  • Learn how home treatment of back and leg pain from a herniated disc can help you avoid surgery.

  • Learn how home treatment and physical therapy can help you avoid surgery.

  • Learn how to do exercises that can help prevent urine leakage.

  • Find out why you're at risk for falling in the hospital and how to prevent a fall.

  • Learn how ACL surgery is usually done and what to expect after surgery.

  • Learn how surgery for a meniscus tear is done and what to expect after surgery.

  • Learn how knee arthroscopy is done and what to expect after surgery.

  • Learn the pros and cons of having a hip replacement.

  • Learn the pros and cons of having a knee replacement.

  • Hear what other people thought about as they decided whether to have hip replacement surgery.

  • Hear what other people thought about as they decided whether to have knee replacement surgery.

  • Learn about surgery to repair a torn rotator cuff.

  • Learn about surgery to repair a broken or fractured hip and what to expect.

  • Get tips on how to take care of yourself at home after hip repair surgery.

  • Learn about shoulder replacement surgery.

  • Get tips on how to take care of yourself at home after rotator cuff surgery.

  • Get tips on how to take care of yourself at home after shoulder replacement surgery.

  • Learn how long it may take to start doing daily activities again after a hip replacement.

  • Learn how long it might take to start doing everyday activities again after a knee replacement.

  • Learn seated exercises you can do at work or at home that can help you relieve stress and strain.

  • Learn how your work area affects your health and safety and how to set it up.

  • Get tips on how to set up and use your computer in a way that prevents aches and pains.

  • Learn what movements may help cause carpal tunnel syndrome. Get tips to help prevent it and manage symptoms.

  • Learn stretches that can help you prevent carpal tunnel syndrome and manage your symptoms.

  • Learn simple exercises that you can do while sitting down.

  • Learn about the range of emotions you may experience after you've had a stroke.

  • Learn about other ways to manage pain, in addition to medicine.

  • Learn exercises to reduce stiffness and soreness and get your shoulder and arm back to normal.

  • Arthritis hurts. And it can make it harder to move your joints. When you don't move your joints as much, your ligaments, tendons, and muscles can shorten and get weaker. But knee shots, or injections, can help you cope with the pain and be more...

  • Complementary medicine includes many treatments you can use along with standard medical treatment. A lot of people use some form of complementary medicine to treat osteoarthritis. Some of these treatments may help you move more easily and deal with the stress and pain of arthritis. But in some cases, not much is...

  • Painful knee arthritis can keep you from being as active as you need to be. You may not walk as much. You may avoid going up and down stairs. But when you don't move that knee as much, the ligaments, tendons, and muscles around it can shorten and...

  • Learn how osteoarthritis usually begins, and listen to stories of how it can progress differently in different people.

  • Learn about different treatments for knee arthritis other than surgery.

  • Learn about the pros and cons of having knee replacement surgery.

  • Learn how cartilage is replaced by implants in knee replacement surgery.

  • Learn about recovering from knee replacement surgery, and listen to stories about different recovery experiences.

  • Learn about the different treatment options for knee arthritis, and hear stories of what others have tried.

  • Spondylosis is age-related change of the bones (vertebrae) and discs of the spine. These changes are often called degenerative disc disease and osteoarthritis. These changes don't always cause symptoms. But they are a common cause of spine problems...

  • What is a lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injury? An LCL injury is a sprain or tear to the lateral collateral ligament (LCL). The LCL is a band of tissue on the outside of your knee. It connects your thighbone to the bone of your lower leg and helps keep the knee from bending outward. You can hurt your LCL...

  • Guides through the decision to have surgery for plantar fasciitis to relieve foot and heel pain. Covers alternative treatments, including stretching exercises and orthotics. Discusses risks. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Guides you through the decision to have surgery for a herniated disc in the low back. Describes the types of surgery available, as well as nonsurgical treatment. Lists the benefits and risks of both types of treatment. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Covers causes of hip fractures. Includes list of things that increase risk. Describes symptoms and how hip fractures are diagnosed. Covers treatment choices. Offers prevention tips, including ways to slow osteoporosis.

  • Guides through decision to have knee surgery for an ACL injury. Compares surgery to rest, exercise, and rehabilitation as treatment for an ACL injury. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Guides you through the decision to have surgery for rotator cuff disorders. Lists risks and benefits of surgery. Talks about other treatment. Explains rehabilitation for rotator cuff surgery. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Spinal manipulation, also called spinal adjustment, is a treatment that uses pressure on a joint of the spine. It is used to improve pain and function. Manipulation can be done with the hands or a special device. The careful, controlled force used...

  • Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis are different types of arthritis. They share some similar characteristics, but each has different symptoms and requires different treatment. So an accurate diagnosis is important. Osteoarthritis is the most...

  • You may be able to relieve heel pain by stretching tight calf muscles. See a picture of a calf stretch exercise. Stand about 1 ft (30 cm) from a wall and place the palms of both hands against the wall at chest level. Step back with one foot, keeping that leg straight at the knee, and both feet flat on the...

  • Guides you through decision to have or not have carpal tunnel release surgery. Looks at problems carpal tunnel syndrome can cause. Covers types of surgery and compares with wrist splint therapy. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Covers surgery to replace ends of both bones in a damaged joint to create new joint surfaces. Includes slideshow on hip replacement. Looks at why it is done and how well it works. Discusses what to expect after surgery and living with a hip replacement.

  • Little Leaguer's elbow occurs in young baseball players who throw the ball too hard or too often (for example, more than 80 times twice a week). The growing part of the elbow, called the growth center (physis), widens and enlarges a part of the...

  • A pinched nerve (nerve entrapment) in or near the elbow can cause elbow pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness of the arm, wrist, or hand. The nerve that most commonly gets pinched in or near the elbow is the ulnar nerve. It is located in the elbow area, on the little finger side when the palm is facing up. Less often...

  • Bursitis is an inflammation of small sacs of fluid (bursae) that help joints move smoothly. Olecranon bursitis, which affects the olecranon bursa at the back of the elbow, is sometimes called Popeye elbow. This is because the bump that develops at...

  • Chiropractic is an approach to health care that uses spinal manipulation to relieve pain. It is most often used for back or neck pain. It is sometimes used for headaches or for pain in the arms or legs. Most doctors of chiropractic ( chiropractors) take a natural approach to promoting health through lifestyle...

  • An MRI scan is the best way to locate multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions (also called plaques) in the brain or spinal cord. An MRI scan is abnormal in more than 95% of people recently diagnosed with MS. But abnormal MRI results do not always...

  • There are two types of stimulator devices for epilepsy. In both types, the devices send electrical signals to the brain to prevent the electrical bursts that cause seizures. The vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is implanted under the skin, near your collarbone. A wire (lead) under the skin connects the device to electrodes...

  • Covers surgery to replace the ends of bones in a damaged joint. Includes slideshow on knee replacement. Looks at why surgery is done, risks, and how well it works. Discusses what to expect after surgery and living with a knee replacement.

  • Covers common causes of elbow injuries. Discusses injuries caused by sudden injury and those caused by overuse. Discusses treatment options. Offers interactive tool to help you decide when to see a doctor. Covers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Looks at conditions, such as gout, pinched nerve, bursitis, tennis elbow, and golfer's elbow, that may cause elbow problems. Offers interactive tool to help you decide when to see the doctor. Covers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Discusses common toe, foot, and ankle injuries. Covers home treatment and basic foot care. Offers injury prevention tips.

  • Details types of injuries to the fingers, hands, and wrists. Discusses possible emergency situations. Includes worksheet to help you decide when to seek care. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Covers finger, hand, and wrist problems caused by medical conditions and overuse. Offers symptom check list. Includes worksheet to help you decide when to call a doctor. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • A hip injury can be hard to deal with, both for the child who has the injury and for the parent or caregiver. A child who has a hip injury may feel pain in the hip, groin, thigh, or knee. A child in pain may limp or be unable or unwilling to stand,...

  • A hip injury and pain can make it hard to walk, go up and down stairs, squat, or sleep on the side that hurts. A clicking or snapping feeling or sound around your hip joint ( snapping hip) may bother you or cause you to worry. But if your hip is not...

  • A hip problem can be hard to deal with, both for the child who has the problem and to the parent or caregiver. A child who has a hip problem may feel pain in the hip, groin, thigh, or knee. A child in pain may limp or be unable or unwilling to...

  • Hip pain can make it hard to walk, go up and down stairs, squat, or sleep on the side that hurts. A clicking or snapping feeling or sound around your hip joint (snapping hip) may bother you or cause you to worry. But if your hip is not painful, in many cases the click or snap is nothing to worry about. Home treatment...

  • Stretching and strengthening exercises can help a child who has juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) control pain and stiffness and maintain mobility. A physical therapist can help figure out how much exercise is appropriate for each child. Stretching exercises are those in which the joints are moved through...

  • Covers the causes and symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, also called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Looks at treatment with NSAIDs, physical therapy, and possibly shots of steroid medicine. Includes tips for helping your child cope with JIA.

  • What are rotator cuff disorders? The rotator cuff is a group of tough, flexible fibers ( tendons) and muscles in the shoulder. Rotator cuff disorders occur when tissues in the shoulder get irritated or damaged. Rotator cuff disorders include: Inflammation of the tendons (tendinitis) or of a bursa (...

  • Discusses open surgery and endoscopic surgery to help relieve foot and heel pain from plantar fasciitis. Describes how it is done and what to expect after surgery. Covers how well it works and the risks.

  • Covers plantar fasciitis, a common cause of heel pain. Discusses causes, including flat feet or tight Achilles tendon. Covers treatment to relieve pain and improve strength and flexibility. Discusses what increases your risk and offers prevention tips.

  • What is an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury? An anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, injury is a tear in one of the knee ligaments that joins the upper leg bone with the lower leg bone. The ACL keeps the knee stable. Injuries range from mild, such as a small tear, to severe, such as when the ligament tears...

  • A regular exercise program is an important part of anyone's lifestyle. If you have osteoarthritis, check with your health professional before beginning or continuing any exercise so that you can determine whether it is safe and effective for...

  • Capsaicin (Zostrix), available without a prescription, is a pain reliever that comes in a cream that you apply directly to your skin (topical analgesic). It has been found to relieve joint pain from osteoarthritis in some people when rubbed into the...

  • If osteoarthritis in the joints of the hands or feet is so severe that function is impossible (rare with osteoarthritis), surgery may allow some pain-free motion. In the hands, the goal is enough pain-free motion to allow the person to do basic...

  • For moderate to severe pain from osteoarthritis, try applying heat and cold to the affected joints. Experiment with these heat and cold techniques until you find what helps you most. Apply heat 2 or 3 times a day for 20 to 30 minutes, using a...

  • If you have osteoarthritis and your joints hurt when you do an activity, try other ways of doing it that do not cause pain. If you get tired when you do a task for long periods of time, break the task down into several smaller tasks, and rest between them. Avoid extended periods of standing, and try not to kneel or...

  • Covers surgery (osteotomy) to remove a wedge of bone near a damaged joint. Looks at why it is done and what to expect after surgery. Covers physical therapy. Includes info on how well it works and the risks of surgery.

  • Covers the causes and symptoms of osteoarthritis. Covers possible treatments with over-the-counter pain medicines and prescription medicines. Includes info on home treatment for joint pain, including using heat or ice, staying at a healthy weight, and exercise.

  • You can help protect the person in your care by making the home safe. Pad sharp corners on furniture and countertops. Keep objects that are often used within easy reach. Install handrails around the toilet and in the shower. Use a tub mat to prevent slipping. Use a shower chair or bath bench when...

  • Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a hip problem a baby is born with or that happens in the first year of life. In this condition, the top of the thighbone doesn't fit securely into the hip socket. This problem may affect one or both hip...

  • What is post-polio syndrome? Post-polio syndrome is an illness of the nervous system that can appear 15 to 50 years after you had polio. It affects your muscles and nerves, and it causes you to have weakness, fatigue, and muscle or joint pain. Although post-polio syndrome can make some day-to-day activities more...

  • Cognitive impairment problems can be caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) and may include difficulty with: Memory, especially short-term memory. Problem solving. Keeping attention on a mental task, such as a math calculation. Finding the right words to...

  • Finding out that you have multiple sclerosis (MS) can be frightening. Even if you know a lot about MS, it is hard to predict how the disease will affect you. Some questions you might ask include the following: Will I have to use a wheelchair? MS affects how nerves in your brain and spinal cord communicate...

  • Exercise is an important part of home treatment for people who have multiple sclerosis (MS). It has benefits in both early and advanced stages of the disease. Regular exercise can help you: Maintain muscle strength and improve coordination. Maintain...

  • There is no cure for multiple sclerosis (MS). So far, the only treatments proved to affect the course of the disease are disease-modifying medicines, such as interferon beta. Other types of treatment should not replace these medicines if you are a candidate for treatment with them. Some people who have MS report...

  • If you have trouble moving around or if you become tired easily because of multiple sclerosis (MS), it may help to make some changes in your home. For instance, it might be helpful to: Change the location of furniture so that you can hold on to...

  • A person with multiple sclerosis (MS) may have difficulty emptying the bladder completely, because the muscle that helps to retain urine cannot relax (a form of spasticity). Sometimes urination can be stimulated by pressing or tapping the bladder...

  • Before conducting a neurological examination for multiple sclerosis (MS), the doctor will collect information about your symptoms. The kinds of symptoms, as well as how and when they occur, are important in evaluating whether you might have MS. Even symptoms that you might have had several years ago can be important...

  • An evoked potential test measures the time it takes for nerves to respond to stimulation. The size of the response is also measured. Nerves from different areas of the body may be tested. Types of responses are: Visual evoked response or potential (VER or VEP). This response occurs when the eyes are stimulated...

  • Covers the four courses of MS: relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive, primary progressive, and progressive relapse. Discusses early and advanced symptoms. Also covers complications. Discusses diagnosis and treatment. Includes info on pregnancy and MS.

  • Exercise is good for healthy pregnant women who are receiving prenatal care. Try to do at least 2½ hours a week of moderate exercise. One way to do this is to be active 30 minutes a day, at least 5 days a week. It's fine to be active in blocks of 10...

  • Discusses extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a procedure that uses shock waves to break a kidney stone into smaller pieces. Covers how it is done and what to expect after treatment. Covers risks.

  • The Epley and Semont maneuvers are exercises used to treat benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). They are done with the assistance of a doctor or physical therapist. A single 10- to 15-minute session usually is all that is needed. When your head is firmly moved into different positions, the calcium crystal...

  • The Brandt-Daroff exercise is one of several exercises intended to speed up the compensation process and end the symptoms of vertigo. It often is prescribed for people who have benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and sometimes for labyrinthitis. These exercises will not cure these conditions. But over time they...

  • Changes in your diet can reduce the mechanical stress on your temporomandibular (TM) joint and may help relieve your jaw pain. Avoid hard or chewy foods (such as popcorn, jerky, tough meats, chewy breads, gum, and raw apples and carrots) that cause...

  • To help prevent or treat a temporomandibular disorder (TMD), you can try gentle jaw exercises. You can also try techniques that help you relax your jaw muscles. Try a gentle exercise to restore normal range of motion, improve flexibility, and...

  • If you have a temporomandibular disorder (TMD), you can try ice or heat to relieve your pain. Put either an ice pack or a warm, moist cloth on your jaw for 15 minutes several times a day. You can try switching back and forth between moist heat and cold. Gently open and close your mouth while you use the ice pack or...

  • Changing body mechanics can help you prevent or treat a temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Maintain good posture. Slumping your shoulders or staying in positions in which your upper body is thrust forward (many people do this to relieve back pain)...

  • Dental splints are the most common dental treatment for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). These splints are used for short periods of time. They do not cause permanent changes in the teeth or jaw. Dental splints, also called occlusal splints,...

  • Some people with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) have areas of the jaw joint that "trigger" severe pain. Trigger point management includes trigger point compression and trigger point injections. Trigger point compression is done by a doctor or physical therapist, who applies firm pressure to the jaw...

  • For arthroscopic jaw surgery, the surgeon inserts a pencil-thin, lighted tube (arthroscope) into the jaw joint through a small incision in the skin. The arthroscope is connected to a small camera outside the body that transmits a close-up image of the joint to a TV monitor. The surgeon can insert surgical instruments...

  • Open-joint arthroplasty is surgery to repair, reposition, replace, or remove parts in a joint. When used to treat temporomandibular disorder (TMD), this usually involves the articular disc that cushions the jaw joint. During open-joint arthroplasty of the jaw, an incision is made in the skin to expose the jaw joint...

  • A physical therapist can develop a program for you that includes learning and practicing techniques for regaining normal jaw movement. The focus of physical therapy for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) is relaxation, stretching, and releasing tight muscles and scar tissue. Physical therapy is an especially important...

  • Discusses temporomandibular disorders (TMD, TMJ). Describes symptoms, including problems with jaw movement, pain in and around the jaw joints, and headaches caused by bruxism. Discusses treatment with occlusal splints. Offers home treatment tips.

  • Ulnar tunnel syndrome is caused by pressure on the ulnar nerve at the wrist. This nerve is found on the pinkie-finger side of the wrist. Overuse or repetitive use of your hands or wrist may cause swelling or thickening of the tissues close to the ulnar nerve. Swelling from a ganglion can also affect the ulnar nerve...

  • Repeated hand and wrist movements, especially if they are done in awkward positions such as with the wrist bent forward or back, can cause swelling or thickening of tissues within the carpal tunnel. The swelling makes the carpal tunnel smaller and...

  • A wrist splint is a brace that looks like a fingerless glove. It stabilizes your wrist in a straight and sometimes slightly bent-back position. Wearing a wrist splint minimizes pressure on the median nerve and allows you a period of "relative rest"...

  • Your doctor can give you information about exercises for building flexibility and strength in your hand, wrist, and arm. Exercises for flexibility may include: Rotating your wrist up, down, and from side to side. Stretching your fingers far apart,...

  • Covers open surgery to release pressure on the median nerve to relieve carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms in your hand. Looks at how the surgery is done, how well it works, and what to expect after surgery. Includes info on risks.

  • Covers endoscopic surgery to release pressure on the median nerve to relieve carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms in your hand. Looks at how the surgery is done, how well it works, and what to expect after surgery. Includes info on risks.

  • Discusses carpal tunnel syndrome, a condition caused by pressure on the median nerve. Covers causes and symptoms such as tingling or numbness in the hand, forearm, or wrist. Discusses what increases your risk. Covers nonsurgical and surgical treatment.

  • The bones (vertebrae) that form the spine in your back are cushioned by round, flat discs. When these discs are healthy, they act as shock absorbers for the spine and keep the spine flexible. If they become damaged, they may bulge abnormally or...

  • Discectomy is surgery to remove lumbar (low back) herniated disc material that is pressing on a nerve root or the spinal cord. It tends to be done as microdiscectomy, which uses a special microscope to view the disc and nerves. This larger view allows the surgeon to use a smaller cut (incision). And this causes less...

  • Kegel exercises make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These muscles control your urine flow and help hold your pelvic organs in place. Doctors often prescribe Kegels for: Stress incontinence. This means leaking urine when you laugh, cough, sneeze, jog, or lift something heavy. Urge...

  • Several types of behavioral methods are used for treating urinary incontinence: bladder training, habit training, biofeedback, and pelvic muscle exercises. People who have incontinence due to physical or mental limitations ( functional incontinence) can try timed voiding and prompted voiding. Bladder training...

  • Electrical stimulation is used to treat urinary incontinence by sending a mild electric current to nerves in the lower back or the pelvic muscles that are involved in urination. You may be able to provide electrical stimulation therapy at home using a unit with a vaginal or anal electrode. Timing and duration of...

  • Stroke is the most common cause of disability resulting from damage to the nervous system. A stroke may affect: Movement. You may not be able to use your arms or walk. This is usually because of weakness or paralysis on one side of the body (hemiparesis). Speech and language. You may not...

  • Some people have speech and language problems after a stroke. These problems may involve any or all aspects of language use, such as speaking, reading, writing, and understanding the spoken word. Speech and language problems, such as aphasia,...

  • After a stroke, you may not feel temperature, touch, pain, or sharpness on your affected side. You may have: Feelings of heaviness, numbness, tingling, or prickling or greater sensitivity on the affected side. No sense of how your muscles and joints...

  • Depending on what part of the brain was affected by a stroke, the way a person acts may be different from how he or she acted before the stroke. A person who was very concerned about details before a stroke may become sloppy and care little about...

  • Emotional reactions after a stroke may be different from normal emotional reactions. The reaction may have little or no clear connection with what is happening around the person. Often reactions can be easily interrupted by diverting the person's...

  • When a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, a person's ability to judge distance, size, position, rate of movement, form, and the way parts relate to the whole is affected (spatial-perceptual problems). People with these problems may have...

  • Some people who have had a stroke ignore or are not aware of one side of their body. This can happen when the stroke damages one side of the brain. Caregivers may notice signs that the person is ignoring, or neglecting, the affected side, such as:...

  • A stroke often causes memory problems. In stroke rehab, you might try ways to help improve memory. If your family member has problems with memory, you might get helpful tips from the stroke rehab team. These tips may include: Set a daily routine, if...

  • Follow instructions from your physical therapist or other health professional for stretching and strengthening exercises. Stretching exercises are controlled stretches that prevent tennis elbow stiffness and tendon shortening. Gently bend, straighten, and rotate your wrist. If you have increasing...

  • Surgery for tennis elbow may involve: Cutting (releasing) the tendon. Removing inflamed tissue from the tendon. Repairing (reattaching) tendon tears if it is possible to do so without overtightening the tendon. Surgery may be done using arthroscopy, traditional open surgery, or a combination of the two techniques...

  • Covers symptoms of tennis elbow, including pain around the elbow. Covers activities that increase risk, like gardening, swimming, or golf. Looks at treatment options, including surgery. Offers prevention tips, including photos of exercises that may help.

  • Covers surgical removal of herniated disc material that presses on a nerve root or the spinal cord. Discusses why it may be done such as for a bulging disc, to relieve pain, or help prevent serious nerve damage. Looks at how well it works and risks.

  • Discusses herniated disc, which is also called a slipped or ruptured disc. Covers symptoms like back pain, numbness, and weakness. Looks at sciatica and bulging disc. Discusses nonsurgical and surgical treatment options. Offers prevention tips.

  • Exercise is an important part of a cardiac rehabilitation program. Combining exercise with other lifestyle changes, such as eating a balanced diet and stopping smoking, reduces the risk of future heart problems. Riding a stationary bike, walking on...

  • Your doctor or physical therapist will design a physical rehabilitation (rehab) program for you that takes into consideration your normal level of activity, physical fitness, and extent of your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A rehab program should include: Flexibility exercises. Strengthening exercises...

  • Surgery for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries involves reconstructing or repairing the ACL. ACL reconstruction surgery uses a graft to replace the ligament. The most common grafts are autografts using part of your own body, such as the tendon of the kneecap (patellar tendon) or one of the hamstring tendons...

  • What is bursitis? Bursitis is a painful swelling of a small sac of fluid called a bursa. Bursae (plural of bursa) cushion and lubricate areas where tendons, ligaments, skin, muscles, or bones rub against each other. People who repeat the same movement over and over or who put continued pressure on a joint in their...

  • Slouching puts stress on your lower back. Slumping or slouching on its own may not cause low back pain. But after the back has been strained or injured, bad posture can make pain worse. When you sit, keep your shoulders back and down, chin back,...

  • There is some evidence that heat will help decrease low back pain. There is little proof that cold will help. But some people do find that heat or cold help them. Follow these suggestions if you would like to try heat or cold for low back pain. Heat to relieve low back pain Apply heat for 15 to 20 minutes...

  • Surgery may be used to treat a rotator cuff disorder if the injury is very bad or if nonsurgical treatment has failed to improve shoulder strength and movement sufficiently. Subacromial smoothing involves shaving bone or removing growths on the upper point of the shoulder blade ( acromion). It removes damaged tendon and...

  • Surgery may be used to treat a torn rotator cuff if the injury is very severe or if nonsurgical treatment has failed to improve shoulder strength and movement sufficiently. Surgery to repair a torn rotator cuff tendon usually involves: Removing loose fragments of tendon, bursa, and other debris from the space in the...

  • Impingement occurs when inflammation, bone spurs, or fluid buildup causes a rotator cuff tendon to be squeezed and rub against a bone. Every time you raise your arm above your head, the upper tendon in the rotator cuff (supraspinatus tendon) and the...

  • Debridement involves removing loose fragments of tendon, thickened bursa, and other debris from around the shoulder joint. By clearing damaged tissue from the region of the shoulder joint, it helps the doctor to see the extent of the injury and...

  • Covers causes and symptoms of spondyloarthropathies, a family of long-term (chronic) diseases of joints. Looks at specific symptoms of each type. Discusses treatment with mild exercise, over-the-counter medicines, and other options.

  • Inflammatory eye disease (uveitis) can develop as a complication in children who have juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Children and adults who have JIA can develop cataracts, glaucoma, corneal degeneration (band keratopathy), or vision loss. The...

  • Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) must do regular range-of-motion exercises to prevent contractures and to maintain joint range and flexibility. If your child is 4 years old or younger, an adult will need to move the child's joints...

  • If your child has severe joint damage from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), your child's doctors may recommend a total joint replacement. As you and the doctors work through this decision together, consider the following: Your child's age. Consider how old your child is. His or her bones may still...

  • Looks at sudden injuries like meniscus tears or torn ligaments that cause knee pain. Covers injuries like bursitis and tendinitis caused by overuse. Includes tool to help you decide when to call a doctor. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Helps you check symptoms of leg injuries caused during sports or recreational activities, work-related tasks, and work or projects around home. Includes bruises, swelling, sprains, pulled muscles, and broken bones. Discusses treatment and prevention.

  • Helps you check symptoms of leg problems not caused by injury. Covers symptoms like pain, swelling, cramps, numbness, tingling, weakness, and lumps and bumps under the skin. Includes pictures of bones of lower leg, thigh, and muscles and tendons.

  • Most people will have a minor neck problem at one time or another. Our body movements usually do not cause problems, but it's not surprising that symptoms develop from everyday wear and tear, overuse, or injury. Neck problems and injuries most commonly occur during sports or recreational activities, work-related...

  • Improper posture may put too much stress on your back and neck. The key to good back posture is to keep the right amount of curve in your lower back. A healthy back has three natural front-to-back curves that give the spine an "S" shape. Too much...

  • Good posture and the way you move your body can help prevent tension in your neck, shoulders, and upper back muscles. If your headaches seem to be related to tension in this area, be aware of your posture and position during daily activities. This...

  • There are many things you can do to make living with low vision easier and safer. Low-vision rehabilitation specialists can give you detailed information and training on doing your household tasks and other activities that can be more challenging...

  • Minor shoulder problems, such as sore muscles and aches and pains, are common. Shoulder problems develop from everyday wear and tear, overuse, or an injury. They can also be caused by the natural process of aging. Your shoulder joints move every time you move your arms. To better understand shoulder problems and...

  • The following tips may help you stand and walk using good posture: Keep your ear, shoulder, hip, and ankle in a line. Avoid locking your knees while standing. Try placing one foot on a low stool if you must stand in one position for a long time. Switch feet every few minutes. Keep your lower back in the neutral...

  • The following exercises will help strengthen the muscles in your neck as well as relieve existing neck pain. You don't need to do every exercise. Do the ones that help you the most. Stop any exercise that increases pain. Do each exercise slowly. Talk to your doctor before doing any of these exercises. Side and...

  • Warmth may relieve pain, relax muscle spasms, increase circulation, and help heal a wound or other problems that affect the eye. For an eye problem, use either of the following methods: Dry warmth. Place a protective layer of fabric between a warm compress and the skin. Heating pads and hot water...

  • Good body mechanics means practicing good posture throughout the day. Use good body mechanics all the time, not just when you have back pain. Keep your back in the neutral position—not too curved and not too flat. When you must stay in one position for long periods of time, take regular breaks to stretch and restore...

  • This exercise strengthens the buttocks muscles, which support the back and help you lift with your legs. Lie flat on your stomach with your arms at your sides. Slowly tighten your buttocks muscles and hold the position (not your breath) for about 6 seconds. Relax slowly. Repeat 8 to 12 times. You may need to place...

  • What is a meniscus tear? A meniscus tear is a common knee injury. The meniscus is a rubbery, C-shaped disc that cushions your knee. Each knee has two menisci (plural of meniscus)—one at the outer edge of the knee and one at the inner edge. The menisci keep your knee steady by balancing your weight across the knee. A...

  • Guides through decision to have a diagnostic test like an MRI or arthroscopy done on a meniscus tear. Describes the two tests. Lists the three types of meniscus tears. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Guides you through the decision to have surgery for a torn meniscus. Explains two kinds of surgery. Explains when surgery is done. Lists risks and benefits of surgery for meniscus tear. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Surgery to repair a torn meniscus involves rehabilitation, although it varies depending on the injury, the type of surgery, and your orthopedist's preference. In general, meniscus surgery is followed by a period of rest, walking, and selected exercises. Every recovery is different and depends on many things. But here...

  • What is an ankle sprain? Most people have twisted an ankle at some point in their life. But if your ankle gets swollen and painful after you twist it, you have most likely sprained it. This means you have stretched and possibly torn the ligaments in your ankle. Even though ankle sprains are common, they are not...

  • Ankle sprains are common injuries that can result in lifelong problems. Some people with repeated or severe sprains can develop long-term joint pain and weakness. Treating a sprained ankle can help prevent ongoing ankle problems. Rehabilitation (rehab) exercises are critical to ensure that the ankle heals completely...

  • Ankle sprains are common injuries that can result in lifelong problems. Some people with repeated or severe sprains can develop long-term joint pain and weakness. Treating a sprained ankle can help prevent ongoing ankle problems. If an ankle sprain does not heal correctly, the joint may become unstable, resulting in a...

  • Guides you through decision to take medicines to treat MS (called disease-modifying therapy). Covers medicine choices. Covers side effects. Lists reasons for and against taking medicines. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • The iliotibial band is a band of fibrous tissue that runs down the outside of the thigh. It provides stability to the knee and hip and helps prevent dislocation of those joints. The band may overdevelop, tighten, and rub across the hipbone or the outer part of the knee. Each time the knee is bent or the hip flexed, the...

  • Bruxism is the unconscious act of grinding the teeth. This usually occurs at night during sleep. Bruxism has been observed in people of all ages, including young children. It is a contributing factor in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Like daytime teeth clenching, bruxism is often considered to be stress-related...

  • Discusses patellar tracking disorder, a problem that causes kneecap instability. Covers causes and symptoms. Covers treatment with physical therapy and surgery for severe cases. Links to exercises that can be done at home.

  • The kneecap (patella) is normally positioned over the front of the knee joint at the base of the thighbone (femur). A kneecap can be dislocated, or moved out of its normal position, when: The inner edge of the kneecap is hit, pushing it toward the outer side of the leg. This can happen more easily if there is patellar...

  • The hamstring muscles are the three muscles that run down the back of the thigh. They attach to the lower pelvis and to the back of the leg just below the knee. Tight hamstring muscles cause the tendons that attach them to the bone to feel taut and make them vulnerable to injury. Regular stretching can prevent...

  • Guides through decision to have surgery for jaw pain (TMD). Includes symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and treatment options. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Bursitis or a tendon injury (tendinopathy) in the elbow causes soreness or pain in the elbow region, particularly when the arm is in motion. Pressing on the affected area will also cause pain. The epicondyles are the bony bumps you can feel on the inside and outside of your elbow. Tendinopathy or epicondylopathy is a...

  • Bursitis or a tendon injury ( tendinopathy) can cause pain at the side of your hip when you rise from a chair and take your first few steps, climb stairs, drive, or lie down with direct pressure on the side of the hip. See a picture of bursitis of the hip. To prevent and ease hip pain during work, play, or daily...

  • Patellar tendinopathy, also known as jumper's knee, affects the tendons that attach the kneecap to the shinbone and the quadriceps tendon to the kneecap. Prolonged kneeling can cause prepatellar bursitis, which can develop into an egg-shaped bump on the front of the kneecap. To prevent and ease knee pain during work...

  • Bursitis or a tendon injury (tendinopathy) in the shoulder can cause pain on the outside or front of the upper arm. Common symptoms include pain, pinching, and stiffness when you raise your arm. These symptoms are often brought on by doing repeated overhead movements. Pain from bursitis or a tendon injury can keep you...

  • Inflammation or small tears in a tendon ( tendinopathy) can cause wrist pain. Although tendinopathy is a different condition than carpal tunnel syndrome, both can respond to the same home treatment tips: Gently warm up your wrists and fingers before beginning an activity. Fan open your fingers. Stretch your wrists...

  • An injury to the Achilles tendon ( Achilles tendinopathy) can cause pain and stiffness on and above the back of the heel. Achilles tendinopathy is common among athletes. But it also occurs in people of all ages, activity levels, and jobs. Bursitis can also cause pain and swelling at the back or bottom of the heel. To...

  • Bursitis can cause a bursa to produce and fill up with fluid. A bursa that is swollen with fluid can be diagnosed and treated by drawing the fluid out with a needle and syringe (aspiration). Fluid often builds up in the bursa again. Draining the bursa can provide relief, but the cause of fluid buildup may also require...

  • Describes symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome such as tingling, numbness, or pain in the fingers, thumb, or hand that occur with pressure on the median nerve. Offers prevention tips. Offers links to more info on carpal tunnel syndrome and office ergonomics.

  • Spondylolysis is a defect or fracture of one or both of the wing-shaped parts of a vertebra. These "wings" help keep the vertebrae in place. When a "wing" is absent, defective from birth, or damaged, a vertebra can slide forward or backward over the bone below, sometimes pressing on the spinal cord or a nerve root. This...

  • A back school is an educational program that teaches you practical information about back care, posture, body mechanics, back exercises, and how to prevent long-term back problems. Going to a back school gives you the tools for self-care, which may improve how well you manage low back pain. Back school works only as...

  • Covers using an electrical current to treat chronic pain. Explains how peripheral nerve and spinal cord stimulation is done, why it is done, and how well it works. Includes possible risks related to the treatment.

  • Lists common lifting mistakes. Offers basic rules to protect your back when lifting. Includes links to pictures on proper lifting technique and more extensive info on low back pain and herniated disc.

  • Experts disagree about the use of heat after an injury. Some experts: Do not recommend using heat because it may increase swelling, especially in the first few hours right after the injury. If you decide to use heat and you notice that the swelling increases, stop using heat and return to cold treatments. Think heat...

  • What is a slipped capital femoral epiphysis? A slipped capital femoral epiphysis occurs when the upper end of the thigh bone (femur) slips at the area where the bone is growing (growth plate or physis) and does not fit in the hip socket correctly. The condition is most common in young teenagers. It's more common in...

  • Covers causes of sciatica such as a bulging or ruptured disc, spinal stenosis, and bone spurs. Looks at symptoms such as pain in your back or buttocks. Includes treatment with a cold pack, medicines, and exercises to relieve pain.

  • What is patellofemoral pain syndrome? Patellofemoral pain syndrome is pain in the front of the knee. It frequently occurs in teenagers, manual laborers, and athletes. It sometimes is caused by wearing down, roughening, or softening of the cartilage under the kneecap. What causes patellofemoral pain syndrome...

  • Discusses a break in the navicular (scaphoid) bone, one of the bones in the wrist. Covers causes and symptoms, such as pain, tenderness, and swelling. Discusses diagnosis using X-rays. Covers treatment with arm cast, splint, or surgery.

  • Bursitis is an inflammation of the small sacs of fluid (bursae) that cushion and lubricate the areas between tendons and bones. The trochanteric bursa is a large sac separating the greater trochanter of the hip and the muscles and tendons of the thighs and buttock. Bursitis can affect many of the bursae around the hip...

  • What is neck pain? Neck pain can occur anywhere in your neck, from the bottom of your head to the top of your shoulders. It can spread to your upper back or arms. It may limit how much you can move your head and neck. Neck pain is common, especially in people older than 50. What causes neck pain? Neck pain can be...

  • Spinal decompression surgery reduces pressure on the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots and may reduce neck pain. To relieve the pressure, your doctor may remove: Bony growths (bone spurs or osteophytes) and fibrous tissue that are narrowing the spinal canal and pressing on spinal nerve roots. Parts of the vertebrae...

  • Discusses common Achilles tendon problems. Covers tendinopathy, which includes tendinitis and tendinosis. Also covers tendon tear or rupture, paratenonitis, peritendinitis, and bursitis. Discusses symptoms such as pain and swelling in back of leg or heel.

  • Guides through the decision to have surgery for tennis elbow (also called lateral epicondylitis). Explains how surgery is done. Covers risks. Lists reasons for and against surgery. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • There are two types of surgery to repair a ruptured Achilles tendon: In open surgery, the surgeon makes a single large incision in the back of the leg. In percutaneous surgery, the surgeon makes several small incisions rather than one large incision. In both types of surgery, the surgeon sews the tendon back...

  • Rehabilitation (rehab) and/or physical therapy are the usual treatment for an Achilles tendon injury. For Achilles tendinopathy, physical therapy can decrease your pain. It can allow you to gradually return to your normal activities. For an Achilles tendon rupture, you can try a rehab program after surgery to repair the...

  • Discusses transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a therapy that uses low-voltage electrical current for pain relief. Covers TENS treatment for different illnesses and conditions such as muscle, joint, or bone problems.

  • Discusses ankylosing spondylitis, a condition that causes pain, stiffness, and swelling in the spine. Covers causes and symptoms. Looks at treatment with conditioning exercises, medicines, and surgery. Offers home treatment tips.

  • Assistive devices and orthotics are tools that help you hold objects, open and close things, transfer weight while shifting positions, or walk. It is important to find a balance between use and rest of a painful (arthritic) joint. When exercise is not enough to control pain, assistive devices and orthotics may help to...

  • Covers exercises that are helpful for a person with osteoarthritis. Includes aerobic, strength, and flexibility exercises, and tips to motivate yourself. Includes things to avoid. Looks at why it is important to exercise and gives tips on how to exercise.

  • Discusses exercises to stretch and strengthen the plantar fascia ligament and Achilles tendon. Has illustrations of exercises. Covers exercises to avoid. Offers other tips like resting or icing to help relieve heel pain.

  • Most people find osteoarthritis to be a nuisance that eventually becomes significant enough to affect their daily activities. And sometimes there are more serious complications. Possible complications of osteoarthritis include: Rapid, complete breakdown of cartilage resulting in loose tissue material in the joint...

  • What is ergonomics? Ergonomics (say "er-guh-NOM-iks") is the study of the kind of work you do, the environment you work in, and the tools you use to do your job. The goal of office ergonomics is to set up your office work space so that it fits you and the job you are doing. When your workstation is set up right, you...

  • Physical therapists provide a type of treatment you may need when back pain makes it hard to move around and do everyday tasks. This treatment helps you move better and may relieve pain. It also helps improve or restore your physical function and your fitness level. The goal of physical therapy is to make daily tasks...

  • Covers exercises that may help reduce or prevent low back pain. Includes aerobic, strengthening, and stretching exercises. Looks at why it is important to exercise for low back pain. Includes tips on how to do the exercises.

  • Guides you through decision to have spinal manipulation. Describes treatment and how well it works for low back pain. Lists benefits and risks of both spinal manipulation and home treatment. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • What is a shoulder separation? A shoulder separation is the partial or complete separation of two parts of the shoulder: the collarbone (clavicle) and the end of the shoulder blade (acromion). See a picture of shoulder separation injuries. The collarbone and the shoulder blade (scapula) are connected by the...

  • Multiple sclerosis, often called MS, affects the central nervous system—the brain and spinal cord. It can cause problems with muscle control and strength, vision, balance, feeling, and thinking. Rehabilitation programs often help. They include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and cognitive...

  • Generally, multiple sclerosis (MS) follows one of four courses: Relapsing-remitting, where you have alternating periods of active disease when symptoms flare up and periods when symptoms fade. This cycle can occur for many years. The disease does not advance during the remissions. Secondary progressive, where you...

  • Assistive devices are tools that help you hold objects, open and close doors, transfer weight while shifting positions, or walk. They assist you by making certain daily activities easier to do. Assistive devices can help you with daily activities such as bathing, grooming, dressing, walking or otherwise being mobile...

  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects different people in different ways. For people who have only mild symptoms from time to time, the disease may not have much impact on their everyday lives. People with more severe MS have frequently recurring or ongoing symptoms and may become disabled within a few years. Most people...

  • Exercises are a very important part of treatment for a rotator cuff disorder. If you have pain, weakness, and stiffness in your shoulder from a rotator cuff problem, your doctor will likely suggest that you try exercises and other at-home treatments. These treatments may include rest, ice, heat, and NSAIDs such as...

  • Protecting babies Each new learning stage for your baby requires increased attention on your part to prevent an injury. It may surprise you how fast your baby can move from one stage to the next. Being aware of your baby's abilities and what skills he or she is likely to develop next will help you prevent...

  • People with Down syndrome usually have some level of independence by the time they become adults. Different types of specialized therapies, counseling, and training can help them learn necessary skills and manage emotional issues. The common types...

  • Level 1 exercises for vertigo are "beginner" exercises. In all of them, start out slowly and gradually try to do the exercise for a longer time or do more repetitions. When you first begin, it is important to have someone with you to help you if you feel you are going to fall. As you progress, you may be able to do some...

  • Many people experience vertigo. If you have Ménière's disease or benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), you may have to deal with vertigo throughout your life. The spinning sensation it causes puts you at risk for falling and can also affect your quality of life if it interferes with your level of activity. You...

  • Level 2 exercises for vertigo are a little harder than the level 1 exercises. For all of them, start out slowly and gradually try to do the exercise for a longer time or for more repetitions. When you first begin, it is important to have someone with you to help you if you feel you are going to fall. As you progress...

  • Walking is a simple but powerful exercise for vertigo that can help your balance. Walking with greater balance will allow you to function better on your own, which in turn may lead to improved self-confidence. As you walk, you will also be working your muscles, which helps you keep muscle tone and may increase your...

  • Make a chart with three columns and as many rows you need for your walks. The chart can help you see your progress in the walking exercises for vertigo. Put the date in the first column, how far you walked or how many times you were able to do the exercises in the second column, and how you felt in the third column...

  • Make a chart with three columns and as many rows you need for your exercises. The chart can help you see your progress in the level 1 and level 2 exercises for vertigo. Put the date in the first column. In the second column, write down how many times you did the exercise and whether you had your eyes open or closed. In...

  • Tips for older adults and people who have had a stroke or have multiple sclerosis or osteoporosis to help prevent falls and injuries. Covers taking care of your health and making changes in your home. Covers preventing falls in the bathroom and outdoors.

  • After an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, you lose leg strength and motion and stability of the knee. It is important that you regain your leg strength and motion as soon as possible, whether you choose to have surgery for your ACL injury or not. Exercises to regain muscle strength and knee motion should begin...

  • A lot of the research on preventing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries has focused on women: women athletes injure their ACLs up to 8 times as often as men athletes. Although the following tips come from women's programs, they can help anyone prevent ACL injuries. Training and conditioning should take...

  • Manual therapy includes: Massage, which applies pressure to the soft tissues of the body, such as the muscles. Mobilization, which uses slow, measured movements to twist, pull, or push bones and joints. Manipulation, which uses pressure on a joint. It can be done with the hands or a special device. The careful...

  • What is spondylosis? Spondylosis is age-related change of the bones (vertebrae) and discs of the spine. These changes are often called degenerative disc disease and osteoarthritis. These changes don't always cause symptoms. But they are a common cause of spine problems that can range from mild to severe. What causes...

  • Mobility is an important aspect of a spinal cord injury (SCI). The ability to move lets you participate more fully in community life and do the things you would like to do. You are not "confined" to crutches or wheelchairs—they make you independent. Mobility devices can help you get to work, go shopping, and get around...

  • When you leave a rehabilitation (rehab) center for your home after a spinal cord injury (SCI), you need to have your home ready for your special needs. Following are some of the adaptations and adaptive equipment you may need. Talk with your rehab team about what you will need specifically and the best way to proceed...

  • After your spinal cord injury (SCI), you may need a wheelchair. Moving from your wheelchair to other locations is known as a transfer. If you have enough upper body strength, you may be able to do this yourself. Your injury and strength will determine what type of transfer you do. But there are general things that are...

  • Guides through decision to have surgery for an Achilles tendon rupture. Describes different types of treatment and when surgery is the best option. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Exercise can reduce pain and improve function in people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, exercise may help prevent the buildup of scar tissue, which can lead to weakness and stiffness. Exercise for arthritis takes three forms: stretching, strengthening, and conditioning. Stretching involves moving...

  • Guides through decision to have knee replacement surgery for osteoarthritis. Describes other surgeries and treatment options used to decrease osteoarthritis pain. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Guides through decision to have hip replacement surgery. Discusses what happens in hip replacement and what to expect after surgery. Offers interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Heat and cold treatments can help with mild to moderate pain from cancer. But talk to your doctor before trying either of these during chemotherapy or radiation treatments. Heat may relieve sore muscles. Use a heating pad, a gel pack, or a hot-water bottle. Or you can take a hot bath or shower. Apply heat for no longer...

  • Most children who have juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) will have some pain and discomfort from the disease. The pain of JIA is related to the type and severity of the disease, the child's pain threshold, and emotional and psychological factors. Pain limits a child's ability to function. With care and good...

  • The purpose of physical therapy is to decrease pain and allow you to gradually return to your normal activities. Physical therapy for spinal stenosis involves treatment with physical or mechanical means, such as through exercise or heat. Physical therapy may reduce pain in the soft tissues (such as the muscles...

  • Meniscectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of a torn meniscus. A meniscus tear is a common knee joint injury. Surgeons who perform meniscectomies ( orthopedic surgeons) will make surgical decisions based on the meniscus's ability to heal as well as your age, health, and activity level. Your doctor will...

  • A meniscus tear is a common injury to the cartilage that stabilizes and cushions the knee joint. The type of the tear can determine whether your tear can be repaired. Radial tears sometimes can be repaired, depending on where they are located. Horizontal, flap, long-standing, and degenerative tears—those caused by years...

  • A meniscus tear is a common knee joint injury. How well the knee will heal and whether surgery will be needed depends in large part on the type of tear and how bad the tear is. Work with your doctor to plan a rehabilitation (rehab) program that helps you regain as much strength and flexibility in your knee as possible...

  • Plantar fasciitis in athletes is often the result of overtraining. You will need to reduce your level of activity. Or you will need to switch to another type of activity that puts less stress on your feet. This, combined with stretching, anti-inflammatory drugs, and making sure that you have good-quality shoes, will...

  • This article shows how to do easy and then more difficult exercises to help with patellar tracking disorder.

  • What are shin splints? Shin splints are a condition that causes pain and sometimes swelling in the front part of the lower leg (shin). The pain is most likely from repeated stress on the shinbone (tibia) and the tissue that connects the muscle to the tibia. They are common in people who run or jog. Activities where you...

  • Discusses muscle cramps, also known as charley horses. Covers causes like strained muscles, dehydration, and needing more potassium or calcium in your body. Covers treatment and prevention, including stretching or taking a warm bath.

  • What is whiplash? Whiplash is pain and stiffness in the neck after an injury that has caused the neck to move suddenly or beyond its normal range. It occurs when the head is suddenly forced backward or forward and is then snapped in the other direction. This kind of motion most often happens to people in a car that is...

  • Covers making your home fall-proof to prevent injuries. Looks at common hazards like clutter and throw rugs. Discusses simple changes you can make in your home and the way you do some activities to reduce risk of falling.

  • After a stroke, the injury to the brain can cause muscles to contract or flex on their own when you try to use an arm or leg. The sensation can be painful. It has been described as a "wicked charley horse." Because the muscle cannot move in its full range of motion, the tendons and soft tissue surrounding the muscle can...

  • Discusses exercise, manual therapy, and education for chronic conditions like COPD or arthritis. Covers goals that include increasing flexibility, strength, and endurance. Covers what to expect.

  • Ice can help decrease pain, swelling, and inflammation that can result from injury and from some conditions such as arthritis. Ice massage is a quick and easy way to get the benefits of ice. You can use an ice cube, but it's easier to use an "ice cup" for ice massage. To make an ice cup, fill...

  • You can use paraffin wax (may be called either paraffin or wax) to apply moist heat to your hands or feet to ease the pain and stiffness of osteoarthritis. Paraffin especially helps to reduce pain and loosen up your hand and finger joints before exercise. You should talk with your doctor before trying paraffin at...

  • A walking aid—a walker, crutches, or a cane—helps substitute for a decrease in strength, range of motion, joint stability, coordination, or endurance. It can also reduce the stress on a painful joint or limb. Using a walking aid can help you be more safe and independent in your daily activities. Almost everyone has...

  • A walking aid—a walker, crutches, or a cane—helps substitute for a decrease in strength, range of motion, joint stability, coordination, or endurance. It can also reduce the stress on a painful joint or limb. Using a walking aid can help you be more safe and independent in your daily activities. Almost everyone has...

  • A walking aid—a walker, crutches, or a cane—helps substitute for a decrease in strength, range of motion, joint stability, coordination, or endurance. It can also reduce the stress on a painful joint or limb. Using a walking aid can help you be more safe and independent in your daily activities. Almost everyone has...

  • Covers shoulder surgery to replace the ends of bones in a damaged joint. Includes what to expect after surgery, continued recovery, and living with a shoulder replacement. Looks at why it is done, how well it works, and the risks of surgery.

  • Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is surgery that replaces the damaged outer surfaces of the femoral head found at the top of the thighbone and, if needed, the cup-shaped socket where the thighbone meets the pelvis in the hip joint. People younger than about age 55 who have hip osteoarthritis have been difficult to help...

  • In older adults, hip fractures are usually caused by a fall. Even a slight fall can sometimes cause a fracture in a weakened hipbone. Children and young adults are more likely to break a hip because of a bike or car accident or a sports injury. Falls cause more fractures—including hip fractures—as people age because...

  • Asks questions that help you find out if your low back problem might be helped by surgery. Results help you talk with your doctor about back pain or other symptoms like leg pain. Helps you talk with your doctor about surgery and other treatment options.

  • Explains what core stability is. Covers how keeping the muscles of your trunk strong helps your posture, balance, and movement, and helps prevent injuries. Gives tips on how to increase your core strength and stability.

  • Tingling, numbness, and pain in the hands are common during pregnancy, especially in the last trimester. These problems are usually caused by carpal tunnel syndrome, and they usually go away after pregnancy. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a specific group of symptoms that can include tingling, numbness, weakness, or pain...

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