Health Library

The Health Library is a collection of health and wellness resources created for learning and accessibility. Select a topic below for related health information or search for a topic in the search bar for more information on other medical conditions.

Pediatrics

  • An intrauterine transfusion provides blood to an Rh-positive fetus when fetal red blood cells are being destroyed by Rh antibodies. A blood transfusion is given to replace fetal red blood cells that are being destroyed by the Rh-sensitized mother's immune system. This treatment is meant to keep the fetus healthy until...

  • Children and teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not misbehave to spite their parents or other adults. Problems develop because ADHD often causes children and teens to react impulsively and makes it difficult for them to...

  • Discusses autism, an autism spectrum disorder (once known as a pervasive developmental disorder). Looks at signs of autism, including problems talking or repetitive behaviors. Covers behavioral and physical exams used to diagnose autism. Covers treatment options.

  • What is amblyopia? Amblyopia is a childhood problem that happens when one eye is weaker than the other. The brain chooses to take in images from the stronger eye and ignore images from the weaker eye. This means that your child uses the strong eye more than the weak eye. If the weak eye doesn't have to work, it isn't...

  • Sex and sexuality communicate a great deal: affection, love, esteem, warmth, sharing, and bonding. These gifts are as much the right of older adults as they are of those who are much younger. Three aspects of sexuality are covered in this topic: the changes that come with aging, suggestions on how to adjust to these...

  • What is cleft palate? Cleft palate is a treatable birth defect. It happens when the roof of the baby's mouth (palate) doesn't develop normally during pregnancy, leaving an opening (cleft) in the palate that may go through to the nasal cavity. A cleft can form on any part of the palate, including the front part of the...

  • Infant formula is a nutritional product that is made from processed cow's milk or soybean products. Special processing makes cow's-milk formula more digestible and less likely to cause an allergic reaction than regular cow's milk. Vitamins and...

  • Written tests called rating scales are used to check for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). These tests can help measure and compare a child's behavior with that of other children the same age. It is best to complete one...

  • The child who is being evaluated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be evaluated for other disorders associated with the condition, such as learning or behavior disorders. The child may be asked questions (verbal tests) or may...

  • The best thing parents can do to help prevent drug and alcohol use by their children is to get involved before a problem begins. Starting when your child is age 5 or 6, talk with him or her about how these substances are harmful to kids....

  • Raising children is a big job. It can be overwhelming to think about all the things your child needs to learn to stay safe and healthy. In addition to teaching children good eating and activity habits, you can also teach them some basic health and safety habits. Remember that your child learns habits by watching...

  • Guides through decision to treat fluid buildup in the middle ear. Discusses risks and benefits of treatment such as ear tubes, antibiotics, and adenoid surgery. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • To help a child between 8 and 14 months old stop biting: Make clear rules about biting. Tell the child, "We never bite people. We bite food like apples and cookies." If the child bites, say "Biting hurts." If you are bitten, exaggerate your response...

  • Guides you through the decision to have warts or plantar warts removed. Discusses types of treatments and their benefits and risks. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Take care of your supplies so that you can test your blood sugar safely and get the most accurate blood sugar results. These results will be used to evaluate your treatment for diabetes. Meters. Follow the instructions from the manufacturer about how to care for the meter. All meters can be damaged by...

  • Your doctor may ask you to keep a record of your child's temper tantrums before you bring your child in for a physical exam. It's a good idea to include the following information. How often does your child have tantrums? What usually leads up to...

  • Learn how to prepare and easily give yourself a single dose of insulin.

  • Learning disabilities make it hard for your child to learn in certain areas. Your child may have trouble with listening, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, or doing math. One example of a learning disability is dyslexia. A child with dyslexia has...

  • Learn how temporary ear tubes help treat ear infections.

  • Learn how to fix some common tripping hazards around your home.

  • Learn how testing your blood sugar can help you stay in your target range.

  • Growth and development milestones help you see how your child is doing compared with other children the same age. The milestones tell you what you should expect from your child in five areas: Physical growth Thinking and reasoning (cognitive...

  • Learn what kangaroo care is, how to do it, why it's important, and how it benefits both your baby and you.

  • Milk oversupply happens when a mother makes more milk than her baby uses. It is sometimes called overabundant milk supply or hyperlactation. Many things influence how much milk you produce. The two most important things are how often you breastfeed...

  • What are head lice? Head lice are tiny insects that live close to the scalp where they lay and attach their eggs. Every year, millions of children get head lice. They are common because they can spread anytime a child's head comes into contact with another child's head or hair. For example, lice can...

  • You can help prevent the flu by getting a flu vaccine every year, as soon as it is available. The vaccine prevents most cases of the flu. But even when the vaccine doesn't prevent the flu, it can make symptoms less severe and reduce the chance of...

  • Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure in the arteries of your lungs. This may also be called pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). These arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs, where the blood picks up oxygen. The walls of the...

  • Take a minute to learn about a sore throat and what you can do to feel better.

  • Take a minute to learn about a urinary tract infection and what you can do to feel better.

  • Take a minute to learn about diarrhea and what you can do to feel better.

  • Take a minute to find out what it means when you have a fever.

  • Learn how to do infant CPR in 3 minutes—just in case.

  • Opioids are strong pain medicines. Examples include hydrocodone, oxycodone, fentanyl, and morphine. Heroin is an example of an illegal opioid. Taking too much of an opioid can cause death. An overdose is an emergency. Naloxone is a medicine used to...

  • Like tampons or pads, menstrual cups are a way to manage menstrual bleeding. You insert a menstrual cup in your vagina to collect menstrual flow. And then you remove it from your vagina to empty it. The cups are usually made of rubber or silicone....

  • What is gender dysphoria? Gender identity is your inner sense of being male, female, both, neither, or some other gender. For transgender people, their gender identity does not match the sex that they were assigned at birth. Sometimes gender identity is outside the two most common categories of male or female. People...

  • Giving medicine to a child can be tricky. Some liquid medicines taste or smell bad. Or they may have a strange texture. And when a child doesn't feel well, he or she can act grumpy or more stubborn than usual. But you can take steps to avoid power...

  • Find out what to do if your baby has jaundice.

  • Many families enjoy using TV, computers, game systems, smartphones, and tablets. They help us to be informed and entertained, do our work and schoolwork, and stay in touch with friends, family, and the wider world. But it's important to manage your family's use of digital media. Too much screen time can increase the...

  • Learn about the risks and benefits of circumcision and what happens during and after the procedure.

  • Naloxone can stop an opioid overdose. Here's how to give it—just in case.

  • Learn how to keep your child as safe as possible in a car seat—in the next 3 minutes.

  • Learn how to make sure your new baby sleeps as safely as possible.

  • Gender identity is your inner sense of being male, female, both, neither, or some other gender. For transgender people, their gender identity does not match the sex that they were assigned at birth. Sometimes gender identity is outside the two most common categories of male or female. People who feel this way may use...

  • To circumcise or not? It's your choice. Here are some things to think about.

  • Find out what it means to be a kid with type 2 diabetes.

  • Help your child with diabetes make smart food and drink choices at school.

  • Here are 5 ways to help kids with diabetes choose healthy foods and drinks.

  • Find out how to support your teen who has diabetes.

  • Find out what type 2 diabetes in children means.

  • Learn how to calm a baby with neonatal abstinence syndrome and when it's time to call the doctor.

  • Here's help with giving your child eyedrops or eye ointment.

  • Here's help with using eyedrops or an eye ointment.

  • Here's help with giving your child a nasal spray or drops.

  • Here's help with giving your child eardrops.

  • Here's help with applying a topical cream for your child.

  • Here's help with how to insert your child's suppository.

  • Here's help with getting your child to take medicine.

  • You know your child best, so learn how to assess your child's pain while in the hospital and to speak up.

  • You're part of the team that keeps your child safe in the hospital. Here's how to prevent a fall.

  • A diagnosis of CF is life-changing. But your child can still have a fulfilling life.

  • Home treatment can help your child live longer. It's not always easy, but you can do it. Here's how.

  • Learn why it's important to prepare for the times when your baby won't stop crying.

  • Learn a safe way to swaddle your new baby.

  • Find out what happens at well-baby visits, how they help you, and why they're important.

  • Learn 6 tips for surviving the first few weeks and months with a new baby in your home.

  • Find out what to do and when to call for help if your child has a minor burn.

  • Find out what to do and when to call for help if your child has a mild sunburn.

  • Find out what to do and when to call for help if your baby or child has mild dehydration.

  • Learn what to expect and what you'll need to know if your premature baby is in the NICU.

  • Find out when to call your doctor or get emergency help when your newborn is sick.

  • Find out what to expect when your baby has surgery to repair pyloric stenosis.

  • Find out what you can do at home to care for your child after a pyloric stenosis repair.

  • Learn how to safely bathe your newborn.

  • Find out what orchiopexy surgery is and how to prepare your child for it.

  • Find out what you can do at home to care for your child after orchiopexy surgery.

  • Learn about asthma tests for children.

  • Learn about spirometry tests for children.

  • Find out what to expect when your child has a tonsillectomy.

  • Find out what you can do at home to care for your child after a tonsillectomy.

  • Find out what cochlear implant surgery is and how to prepare for it.

  • Learn more about how to use opioid medicines safely—if your child is prescribed one.

  • Learn what a strep test is and how it's done.

  • Find out what you can do at home to care for your child after a cochlear implant.

  • Learn how to encourage resilience so your child can better handle life's challenges.

  • Learn how to safely dress your newborn.

  • Learn 4 ways to encourage self-discipline in your child.

  • Learn what cardiac catheterization for PDA is and how to prepare your child for it.

  • Learn what you can do at home to care for your child after a cardiac catheterization for PDA.

  • Learn what an EP study and ablation are and how to prepare your child for each one.

  • Learn what you can do at home to care for your child after an EP study and ablation.

  • Learn 4 ways to encourage self-discipline in your teen.

  • Find out how to make chores a positive part of your child's routine.

  • This article covers the basics of COVID-19, including common symptoms, treatment, the course of the disease, and how to care for yourself.

  • Learn healthy ways to get through a process.

  • Find out what COVID-19 is, how it's spread, its symptoms, and how to protect yourself and others.

  • Learn how to take care of yourself if you have COVID-19 and find out ways to prevent spreading it to others.

  • Learn how to take care of yourself if you have been exposed to COVID-19 and find out ways to prevent spreading it to others.

  • Learn what social distancing means and why it's important to keep your distance.

  • Discover things you can do to while keeping a social distance.

  • Learn the 5 steps to hand-washing.

  • The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a virus. It is an illness that was first found in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. It has since spread worldwide. The virus can cause fever, cough, and trouble breathing. In severe cases, it can cause pneumonia and make it hard to breathe without help. It can cause...

  • During the coronavirus outbreak, learn what to do if you do if you feel sick.

  • You're probably spending a lot of time in your home these days. And that's one place where you have some control. Here are some tips that can help keep you and your home safe from COVID-19. Practice prevention. Wash your hands well and often. Scrub with soap and water for 20 seconds. If you go out...

  • Many parents are asking, "What are the best ways to protect my child from the virus?" Here are the most powerful steps you can take to protect yourself and your family. Wash hands well and often. Everyone in your household needs to do this. Wash your hands well with soap and water for at least 20...

  • There are things you can do to protect your health and the health of your baby. If you're pregnant Pregnancy causes changes in the body that may raise the risk for some infections. Pregnant women are more likely to get seriously ill from respiratory infections, like the flu. So it's important to try to avoid...

  • Learn five things you can expect when bringing a new baby home.

  • Learn five ways to prepare for breastfeeding.

  • Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but serious condition. It causes inflammation, which can affect the heart, lungs, brain, and other organs. A child usually has a fever for 24 hours or longer, plus other symptoms. These can vary, but...

  • Learn the difference between symptoms of the flu and COVID-19.

  • Learn strategies to help yourself manage the impact of news and social media use in your everyday life.

  • Learn some ways to manage family stress.

  • Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a doctor's prescription. This doesn't mean that OTC medicines are harmless. Like prescription medicines, OTCs can be very dangerous for children if not taken the right way. Be sure to read the package instructions on these medicines carefully. Talk to...

  • Discusses causes, symptoms, medicines, home treatment, triggers, and prevention tips for children's migraine and tension headaches.

  • Most women have painful cramps from their period from time to time. The good news is that you can usually relieve cramps with over-the-counter medicine and home treatment. Pain medicine and home treatment can help ease cramps. Stay ahead of the pain. Take over-the-counter pain medicine, such as ibuprofen (Advil, for...

  • Guides through decision to have your child have a tonsillectomy for tonsillitis. Includes common reasons to have a tonsillectomy. Describes how this surgery is done. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Follow your body's hunger and fullness signals. Smart snacking can help you keep your blood sugar levels stable, especially if you are taking medicine for diabetes. Try these tips: Enjoy eating the right portion. Try using a smaller plate, bowl, or glass while you slowly eat your snack...

  • Every year, thousands of older adults fall and hurt themselves. Falls are one of the main causes of injury and disability in people age 65 and older. Those who fall once are 2 to 3 times more likely to fall again. Hip fractures are especially serious, and most of them are caused by falling. Falls are often caused by...

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that you wear disposable gloves when cleaning up diarrhea or other body fluids. You may wear reusable rubber gloves if you wash and disinfect them after each use. If you don't have gloves, be sure to wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water when you...

  • DTaP vaccine can prevent diphtheria, tetanus, and Pertussis. Diphtheria and pertussis spread from person to person. Tetanus enters the body through cuts or wounds. DIPHTHERIA (D) can lead to difficulty breathing, heart failure, paralysis, or death. TETANUS (T) causes painful stiffening of the muscles...

  • Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from person to person through contact with the feces (stool) of people who are infected, which can easily happen if someone does not wash his or her hands properly. You can also get hepatitis A from food, water, or object…

  • Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a liver disease that can cause mild illness lasting a few weeks, or it can lead to a serious, long illness. Acute hepatitis B infection is a short-term illness that can lead to fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice...

  • Hib vaccine can prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. Haemophilus influenzae type b can cause many different kinds of infections. These infections usually affect children under 5 years of age, but can also affect adults with certain medical conditions...

  • Influenza vaccine can prevent influenza (flu). Flu is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every year, usually between October and May. Anyone can get the flu, but it is more dangerous for some people. Infants and young children, people 65 years of age and older, pregnant women...

  • Influenza vaccine can prevent influenza (flu). Flu is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every year, usually between October and May. Anyone can get the flu, but it is more dangerous for some people. Infants and young children, people 65 years of age and older, pregnant women...

  • MMR vaccine can prevent measles, mumps, and rubella. MEASLES (M) can cause fever, cough, runny nose,and red, watery eyes, commonly followed by a rash that covers the whole body. It can lead to seizures (often associated with fever), ear infections, diarrhea, and pneumonia. Rarely, measles can cause brain damage or death...

  • Meningococcal ACWY vaccine can help protect against meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W, and Y. A different meningococcal vaccine is available that can help protect against serogroup B. Meningococcal disease can cause meningitis (infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord)...

  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) can prevent pneumococcal disease. Pneumococcal disease refers to any illness caused by pneumococcal bacteria. These bacteria can cause many types of illnesses, including pneumonia, which is an infection of the lungs. Pneumococcal bacteria are one of the...

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) can prevent pneumococcal disease. Pneumococcal disease refers to any illness caused by pneumococcal bacteria. These bacteria can cause many types of illnesses, including pneumonia, which is an infection of the lungs. Pneumococcal bacteria are one of the most…

  • Polio vaccine can prevent polio. Polio (or poliomyelitis) is a disabling and life-threatening disease caused by poliovirus, which can infect a person's spinal cord, leading to paralysis. Most people infected with poliovirus have no symptoms, and many recover without complications...

  • Tdap vaccine can prevent tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. Diphtheria and pertussis spread from person to person. Tetanus enters the body through cuts or wounds. TETANUS (T) causes painful stiffening of the muscles. Tetanus can lead to serious health problems, including being unable to open the mouth...

  • Varicella vaccine can prevent chickenpox. Chickenpox can cause an itchy rash that usually lasts about a week. It can also cause fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, and headache. It can lead to skin infections, pneumonia, inflammation of the blood vessels, and swelling of the brain and/or spinal...

  • Rotavirus vaccine can prevent rotavirus disease. Rotavirus causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead to dehydration. Vomiting and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus. Rotavirus vaccine Rotavirus vaccine is administered by putting drops in the child's mouth...

  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine can prevent Japanese encephalitis. Japanese encephalitis occurs mainly in many parts of Asia and the Western Pacific, particularly in rural areas. It is spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. It does not spread from person to person. Risk is very low for most travelers.

  • MMRV vaccine can prevent measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. MEASLES (M) can cause fever, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes, commonly followed by a rash that covers the whole body. It can lead to seizures (often associated with fever), ear infections, diarrhea, and pneumonia. Rarely, measles...

  • The vaccines included on this statement are likely to be given at the same time during infancy and early childhood. There are separate Vaccine Information Statements for other vaccines that are also routinely recommended for young children (measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, rotavirus, influenza, and hepatitis A).

  • HPV (Human papillomavirus) vaccine can prevent infection with some types of human papillomavirus. HPV infections can cause certain types of cancers including: cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancers in women, penile cancer in men, and anal cancers in both men and women HPV vaccine prevents infection...

  • Meningococcal B vaccine can help protect against meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B. A different meningococcal vaccine is available that can help protect against serogroups A, C, W, and Y. Meningococcal disease can cause meningitis (infection of the lining of the brain...

  • Provides links to info on child growth and development topics. Also includes links to info on illnesses that might affect a child's health. Topics listed include immunizations, healthy eating for children, and asthma in children.

  • Provides links to topics that cover common parenting questions about infant and toddler health. Includes info on how to stop thumb-sucking, how to manage an episode of croup, and whether to give your child antibiotics for an ear infection.

  • Provides links to how-to information about teen health. Includes info on acne, bullying, depression, headaches, and tobacco use. Covers talking with your teen about sex and responding to substance use. Also covers anorexia and bulimia.

  • Provides links to info for parents. Includes information on healthy eating, protecting your child from infections, immunizations, choosing child care, healthy habits for kids, helping your child avoid drugs, and helping your child with stress.

  • Links to information on colds and flu. Covers at-home treatment for cold and flu symptoms, the flu vaccine, prevention of colds and flu, and medicines for the flu.

  • Discusses pinkeye (conjunctivitis). Covers symptoms like red eyes and itching or burning feeling. Explains possible causes. Offers home treatment and prevention tips. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor.

  • Briefly discusses causes of coughs, including common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, GERD, COPD, choking, or chemicals in the air. Offers interactive tool to help decide when to seek care. Also offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Briefly discusses causes of coughs in children, including common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, allergies, choking, or chemicals in the air. Offers interactive tool to help decide when to seek care. Also offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Crying lets others know when a young child is hungry, wet, tired, too warm, too cold, lonely, or in pain. If your child is crying, try to identify the type of cry. It helps to go through a mental checklist of what might be wrong—but remember that there may be nothing bothering your child—and to make sure your child is...

  • If you have diabetes, talk with your health professional (if you haven't already) about how often you need to test your blood sugar level. Use this form to record the times that you should test and when to call your health professional for blood...

  • How does alcohol affect diabetes? When you have diabetes, you need to be careful with alcohol. If you take medicine for diabetes, drinking alcohol may cause low blood sugar. Too much alcohol can also affect your ability to know when your blood sugar is low and to treat it. Drinking alcohol can make you feel...

  • Children of all ages need plenty of sleep to grow and develop. School-age children may have trouble learning and developing socially if they don't get enough sleep. Children's sleep problems can cause stress for parents, who may worry about their children. Parents also may be awake much of the night trying to get a...

  • You can use a dilute bleach bath to help heal your atopic dermatitis rash if you have skin infections caused by staph ( Staphylococcus aureus). The treatment is a little bit like soaking in swimming pool water. Doctors have been prescribing bleach baths for more than 20 years. Bleach baths are an easy, inexpensive...

  • Sexual orientation means how you are attracted romantically and sexually to other people. There are different kinds of sexual orientation. For example, a person may be: Heterosexual—attracted only or almost only to the other binary (male/female) gender. "Binary" is the idea that there are only two genders, male...

  • Many people believe things that aren't true about gay, lesbian, and bisexual people. Here are some questions people sometimes have. Question: Can gay, lesbian, and bisexual people change their sexual orientation? Can they get some kind of treatment? Answer: Like heterosexuals, gay...

  • Gender identity is your inner sense of being male, female, both, neither, or some other gender. For transgender people, their gender identity does not match the sex that they were assigned at birth. Sometimes gender identity is outside the two most common categories of male or female. People who feel this way may use...

  • Backpacks are handy for carrying books—and lots of other things. But if they're not used right, they can strain muscles and even cause back pain. Backpack safety is important for everyone. It's especially important for children, who can be hurt by regularly carrying too much weight or by not wearing their backpacks...

  • Caring for just one newborn is a big job. Raising more than one baby means even less sleep, more work, and less time for yourself. On some days, you may feel frustrated that you can't keep up with work at home. Do not wait for stress to become a...

  • Like all children, those with disabilities need to be as active as possible. But children with disabilities are less likely to be physically active than other children. An inactive lifestyle for these children can lead to other problems, including:...

  • Childhood isn't all fun and games. Even young children can feel worried and stressed. Stress can come from outside, such as family, friends, and school. It can also come from children themselves. Just like adults, children may expect too much of themselves and then feel stressed when they feel that they have failed.

  • Habits are hard to break. That's why the sooner in life we build good, healthy habits, the easier it is to keep them and stay as healthy as possible. And when good habits are in place, it's easier to resist bad ones. The most important thing to...

  • Insulin is used for people who have type 1 diabetes. It's also used if you have type 2 diabetes and other medicines are not controlling your blood sugar. If you have gestational diabetes, you may need to take insulin if diet and exercise have not helped to keep your blood sugar levels within your target range. With...

  • Childhood is the best time to learn the healthy habits that can last a lifetime. Healthy eating can help your child feel good, stay at or reach a healthy weight, and have lots of energy for school and play. In fact, healthy eating can help your whole family live better. Return to topic: Healthy Eating for Children...

  • Physical activity is essential for lifelong health and well-being. A child can't be healthy if he or she isn't playing actively or exercising most days of the week. One of the very best things you can do for your children's health is to help make physical activity a habit—something that will be a natural part of their...

  • "Overweight" and "at risk of overweight" are terms sometimes used when referring to children who weigh more than expected. Doctors use the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts or the body mass index (BMI) to measure a child's weight in relation to his or her height. To find out your child's BMI...

  • Children as young as preschool age benefit from exercise and fitness as much as adults do. Experts recommend that teens and children (starting at age 6) do moderate to vigorous activity at least 1 hour every day. And 3 or more days a week, what they choose to do should: Make them breathe harder and make the heart beat...

  • Eating low-glycemic foods is one tool to help keep your diabetes under control. The glycemic index is a rating system for foods that contain carbohydrate. It helps you know how quickly a food with carbohydrate raises blood sugar, so you can focus on eating foods that raise blood sugar slowly. Foods that raise...

  • Gratitude is saying "thank you." But it's more than a thank-you to a friend for a favor or gift. Gratitude is saying thanks for everything that is important to you and good in your life. You are thankful for a gift, but you're also thankful to watch...

  • Learn how carbohydrate foods raise your blood sugar.

  • Learn how insulin works and why diabetes causes high blood sugar.

  • When you test your blood sugar, you learn your blood sugar level at that time. But you can't tell what's happening to your blood sugar the rest of the time—especially overnight. A continuous glucose monitor, or CGM, can do that for you. A CGM has...

  • Healthy, satisfying sex is very important for relationships. And the fear of having sex because of back pain can be a big problem. If your sex life has suffered because of back pain, take heart. Many people have faced this problem. And there are steps you can take to deal with it. 5 tips for a better sex life...

  • Babies and small children need early treatment for asthma symptoms to prevent severe breathing problems. They may have more serious problems than adults because their bronchial tubes are smaller. Although it may appear that occasional treatment with medicines for children who have mild asthma is enough, one review...

  • What is sickle cell trait? Sickle cell trait occurs when a person inherits a sickle cell gene from just one parent. It's not the same as sickle cell disease, in which a person inherits two sickle cell genes, one from each parent. People with sickle cell disease have just one kind of hemoglobin (hemoglobin S)...

  • Managing diabetes is all about setting a healthy routine of medicine, eating, exercise, and sleep. But when you work night shifts or have changing work shifts, it can seem like there's nothing at all routine about your life. It's definitely more of a chore to manage diabetes under such conditions, but it can be done...

  • A colonoscopy is a test that lets a doctor look inside your colon. The doctor uses a thin, lighted tube called a colonoscope to look for small growths (called polyps), cancer, and other problems like bleeding. During the test, the doctor can take...

  • Radiation is energy that travels as a wave or particle. Some types of radiation, called ionizing radiation, can be harmful. Radioactivity is ionizing radiation that is given off by substances, such as uranium, as they decay. About half of the...

  • Sophie's favorite class, drama, comes right at the end of the day—just when her friends are ready to sneak out of school. Auditions for the school play are being held today, and she really wants to try out. But her friends are telling her to cut class and go to the city with them. She wants to be in the play, but she...

  • What is postpartum? During the first weeks after giving birth, your body begins to heal and adjust to not being pregnant. This is called postpartum (or the postpartum period). Your body goes through many changes as you recover. These changes are different for every woman. The first weeks after childbirth also are a...

  • What is medical marijuana, and is it legal? Marijuana is a drug that is made up of the leaves, flowers, and buds of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Medical marijuana is the use of this drug to help treat symptoms like pain, muscle stiffness ( spasticity), nausea, and lack of appetite. It may be used by people who...

  • Learn how following an asthma action plan can help you take control of your asthma.

  • Learn the signs of infection with diabetes so that small skin problems don't become serious.

  • Learn the best way to test blood sugar. Knowing your blood sugar levels helps you manage your diabetes.

  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, the body's natural defense system. Without a strong immune system, the body has trouble fighting off disease. Both the virus and the infection it causes are called HIV....

  • Learn how to prepare and give yourself a mixed dose of insulin.

  • It's true—diabetes raises your risk of heart disease. That means your risks of heart attack and stroke are higher when you have diabetes. Diabetes is plenty to keep up with as it is. That explains why dealing with both heart risk and diabetes can seem like too much all at once. But it's also true that good...

  • Learn how to get your baby to latch on and what to do if you're having pain or problems.

  • The shape of a newborn's head may be affected by how the baby was positioned in the uterus, by the birth process, or by the baby's sleep position. Positional plagiocephaly (say "play-jee-oh-SEF-uh-lee") means that a baby's head is flat in the back...

  • Salicylic acid is available as a paint, cream, plaster, tape, or patch that you put on the wart. Be sure to read and follow the instructions that come with the medicine, or follow your doctor's instructions. Salicylic acid may take weeks to months...

  • Learn to spot hazards in your home by using a home safety checklist.

  • Learn how to use a finger-stick test to see how food or activity can change your blood sugar.

  • Learn about the A1c test and how to make a plan to meet your safe target blood sugar level.

  • Learn why checking your feet daily when you have diabetes is important and how to do it.

  • You may be surprised at the number of diapers your newborn goes through every day. Many newborns have at least 1 or 2 bowel movements a day. By the end of the first week, your baby may have as many as 5 to 10 a day. Your baby may pass a stool after...

  • Osgood-Schlatter disease is a knee problem that causes pain and swelling in the shinbone (tibia) just below the kneecap (patella). This is the spot where the patellar tendon attaches to a bony mound in the knee called the tibial tubercle. Older...

  • If your child is facing a hospital stay, you want to do all you can to make the hospital less strange and frightening. Fear of the unknown can be worse than fear of the known, so letting your child know what to expect will go a long way toward...

  • Sex is part of a healthy life. And it can be safe for people who have heart problems. But some of these people may worry about having sex. Or they may have problems having sex or enjoying sex. If you are having sexual problems, talk with your...

  • Learn the simple steps to give yourself an insulin shot in the arm using a syringe.

  • Learn how to give a glucagon shot to a person who is having a low-blood-sugar emergency.

  • Learn how to use a mask spacer to give a child an inhaled asthma medicine.

  • Learn tips for creating a good sleep routine for your newborn.

  • Learn some tried-and-true ways to comfort a crying baby.

  • Learn how often your baby needs breast milk or formula.

  • Learn what to expect in the first few days when changing your baby's diapers.

  • Learn how to care for your newborn's umbilical cord stump.

  • When you spend time around an animal—whether it's a pet, a farm animal, or a wild animal—there's a chance you can pick up an infection. An infection you get from an animal is called a zoonosis (say "zoh-uh-NOH-sus"). Some infections can seem mild,...

  • What are kissing bugs? Kissing bugs are wingless insects that are about 0.75 in. (1.9 cm) long. Kissing bugs are dark brown or black with red or orange spots along the edge of their bodies. They are also called assassin bugs or cone-nosed bugs. Like mosquitoes, kissing bugs feed on blood from animals or people...

  • Learn how to wash so you won't spread the rash.

  • Learn how to use a rubber bulb to remove mucus from a baby's nose.

  • Learn how to use home treatment to stop a cough from croup.

  • Learn simple steps you can use to stop a nosebleed.

  • Learn ways to ease the discomfort of pinkeye and keep the infection from spreading.

  • Learn how to keep your child with epilepsy safer at home, outdoors, and at school.

  • Learn how to use lighting and contrast to make your home safer.

  • Learn how following an asthma action plan can help you control your child's asthma.

  • Learn why a long-acting bronchodilator might be added to your child's asthma medicine.

  • Learn how to tell when your child is using a rescue inhaler too often.

  • Find out the important things that happen for you and others when you get the flu vaccine.

  • Birth control—without it, pregnancy can happen. That's why you need birth control you can count on. There are lots of good options for birth control. Your best choices are those that you find easy to use—so you never go without it. And of course, no matter what kind of birth control you use, you always need a plan for...

  • Learn ways to prevent a return trip to the emergency room for your child with asthma.

  • Learn ways to encourage your young child to take asthma medicine with a nebulizer.

  • Learn how to help your child deal with asthma and asthma treatments.

  • Learn how your child should use an inhaler without a spacer.

  • Learn how your child should use an inhaler with a spacer.

  • Learn how to use a nebulizer, with a face mask, on your child.

  • Learn why you probably don't need an antibiotic when you have acute bronchitis.

  • Learn why antibiotics shouldn't be prescribed to children who have a cold or flu.

  • Learn how immunizations protect your child, your family, and your community.

  • Learn how immunizations protect your child, your family, and your community.

  • Ages 11 through 14 are often called early adolescence. These years are an exciting time of varied and rapid changes. Your child grows taller and stronger and also starts to feel and think in more mature ways. You may feel amazed as you watch your...

  • Ages 15 to 18 are an exciting time of life. But these years can be challenging for teens and their parents. Emotions can change quickly as teens learn to deal with school, their friends, and adult expectations. Teen self-esteem is affected by...

  • Learn what you can do to have a healthy pregnancy and baby when you have diabetes.

  • Learn what other women with diabetes have done to prepare for pregnancy.

  • Hear how other people learned to do a better job managing their diabetes.

  • Learn how to prepare for surgery when you have diabetes.

  • Learn what you can do at home to slow down kidney damage.

  • Learn why having diabetes raises your risk for heart disease and what you can do about it.

  • Guides through decision to get the HPV vaccine. Explains the vaccination process. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • What is aggression? Everyone gets angry sometimes, even small children. But some children and teens have so much trouble controlling their anger that they shove, hit, or make fun of other people. This causes them trouble at home and at school. They often have a hard time making friends. And their aggression makes...

  • Nipple shields are devices to help with certain breastfeeding problems. A nipple shield looks like a little hat with a brim. The crown of the hat fits over the nipple, and the brim lies over the areola. Most nipple shields are made of a soft, thin,...

  • Learn how to talk to your child about his or her upcoming hospital stay.

  • Learn how the pneumococcal vaccine protects you from serious infections.

  • Pityriasis alba (say "pih-tih-RY-uh-sus AL-buh") is a common skin problem that causes round or oval patches of skin that look lighter than the rest of the skin. The patches may look pink or slightly scaly at first. How the patches look may bother...

  • Get motivated to quit by thinking about the example you are setting for your child.

  • Using a breast pump is a good way to provide the benefits of breastfeeding when you have to be away from your baby. Pumping will help keep up your milk supply and prevent discomfort and breast engorgement. You can also use a breast pump to slowly...

  • Teaching your child by example isn't about being a perfect parent. True, it's about showing, or modeling, healthy choices and good behavior. But it's also about showing your child how to handle mistakes and recover from bad choices. How can you be a good role model for your child? First, take a minute to...

  • Learn what body image is and how to feel better about the way you look.

  • See how other teens have gotten more active and had fun too.

  • Hear how other teens got past the things that kept them from healthier eating.

  • Why is sleep important to your child? A good night's sleep helps your child to grow, to form memories, and to learn. Sleep helps your child stay alert and focused at school and play. Children who don't get enough sleep over time can have behavior problems and trouble learning. They may become moody, sad, or...

  • Germs and infection can spread easily in the home. This may happen when items around the house become soiled or when you come into contact with body fluids, such as blood or urine. A person's cough or sneeze can spread germs too. Washing your hands often can help you keep germs and infection from spreading...

  • Keeping clothes and bed linens clean can take time, but it's worth the effort. It can help the person you're caring for stay healthy and feel clean. Clothes and bed linens become soiled when they come into contact with things like urine, stool, or vomit. Washing soiled clothes and linens right away can help...

  • Checking the feet and keeping them clean and soft can help prevent cracks and infection in the skin. This is especially important for people who have diabetes. Keeping toenails trimmed—and polished if that's what the person likes—also helps the person feel well-groomed. If the person you care for has diabetes or...

  • Get tips on how to stay safe in the sun.

  • What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is a measure of how hard the blood pushes against the walls of the arteries as it moves through the body. High blood pressure happens when the blood is pushing too hard. Another name for high blood pressure is hypertension. Blood pressure readings include two numbers...

  • Learn how to check your skin for possible signs of skin cancer.

  • Learn what bronchoscopy is and how it is done.

  • For a lot of people, diabetes leads to serious health problems. These life-changing conditions bring with them new medical decisions and plans. Medical decisions are very personal. Different people handle them in different ways. "In the past year, I've learned I have kidney disease from my diabetes...

  • After getting approval from several expert groups, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the following immunization schedule for children. You can view it online at: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html

  • After getting approval from several expert groups, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the following immunization schedule for children. You can view it online at: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html.

  • Scoliosis is a problem with the curve in your spine. Many people have some curve in their spine. But a few people have spines that make a large curve from side to side in the shape of the letter "S" or the letter "C." If this curve is severe, it can...

  • Your name: __________________ Date: _______________________ You can make the most of your office visit by having this form with you when you talk with your doctor. What to bring to every appointment Your blood sugar log. A list of all your...

  • Helping or caring for an older adult with diabetes can feel like a lot to take on. There's the challenge of caregiving—because what seems best for someone isn't always what that person wants to do. You may worry about invading your loved one's privacy or free will. There's also the stress of learning how to manage...

  • Learn how testing helps you make the connection between blood sugar levels and daily activities.

  • Learn about ear infections and how you can care for your child at home.

  • Drug withdrawal in newborns (also called neonatal abstinence syndrome) is a set of problems that may affect a child if the mother used certain drugs while she was pregnant. These drugs may include prescription medicines or illegal drugs. Some...

  • The flu and the common cold are both types of upper respiratory infections (URIs). Both are caused by viruses. But the flu is not the same as the common cold. Flu symptoms are usually much worse than a cold. The flu usually comes on suddenly and...

  • Growing pains are leg pains that can hurt enough to wake your child at night. Although they can be very painful, they are not serious. They will not cause any long-lasting problems. Growing pains can start as early as the toddler years, or they can...

  • What are body lice? Body lice are tiny insects that can make a temporary home in the seams of your clothing or bedding (sheets, pillows, and blankets). They'remost often spread by contact with a person who has body lice or with that person's clothes, bedding, or towels. Body lice are usually found only...

  • What are pubic lice? Pubic lice are tiny insects that usually live in your pubic area. Sometimes they're also found on facial hair, eyelashes, eyebrows, armpits, chest hair, and the scalp. They're different than the kind of lice that you can get on your head. Pubic lice are also called "crabs" because they look like...

  • Learn what wound debridement surgery is and how to prepare your child for it.

  • Learn what you can do at home to care for your child after wound debridement surgery.

  • Learn what skin graft surgery is and how to prepare your child for it.

  • Learn what you can do at home to care for your child after a skin graft.

  • Teach your teen the important life skill of being responsible with money.

  • Use these tips to teach your child about money.

  • Help your teen learn to deal with conflict at school or on social media.

  • Help your teen balance gaming time with other activities.

  • Learn to help your teen build healthy boundaries and habits around phone use.

  • Try these tips for loving discipline, which can help your toddler learn how to behave.

  • Guides you through the decision to have your child take medicine for ADHD. Lists benefits and risks of medicines. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • If you want to save this information but don't think it is safe to take it home, see if a trusted friend can keep it for you. Plan ahead. Know who you can call for help, and memorize the phone number. Be careful online too. Your online activity may...

  • Because you have diabetes, you need to wash your feet carefully each day. Post this list of proper foot-washing steps in your bathroom. Use warm (not hot) water. Check the water temperature with your wrists, not your feet. Wash all areas of your...

  • If your feet require specially designed shoes, ask your insurance plan about covering the cost of the shoes. Medicare will cover foot exams and special (orthotic) shoes or shoe inserts. Some medical supply shops specialize in designing custom-fitted...

  • Try the following comfort measures if your baby is hospitalized: Stay with your child, or visit often. Hold or touch your child. Talk to your child, and be involved in his or her care. This will help your child get well, and it will make you feel...

  • Discusses preventing high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) problems in a person with diabetes. Explains emergencies in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Discusses treating infections early, being prepared, and drinking plenty of liquids.

  • Your first menstrual period is called menarche (say "MEN-ar-kee"). It usually starts sometime between ages 11 and 14. But it can happen as early as age 9 or as late as 15. If you are a teenage girl, see your doctor if you have not started having periods by age 15. Menarche is a sign you are growing up and becoming a...

  • Although communicating with your adolescent or teen can be challenging, it is important to continually make the effort. This is especially important when your child acts out with problem behaviors or seems troubled in some way. When attempting to...

  • Marijuana, also called cannabis, is a drug that is made up of the leaves, flowers, and buds of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. It is often smoked in pipes or hand-rolled cigarettes. But it can also be vaporized, applied to the skin, cooked in food,...

  • Crying is a child's first way of communicating. Parents and caregivers become better over time at identifying their child's cry. Along with crying, a child may not act normally when something is wrong with him or her. Infection, illness, injury or...

  • What is cerebral palsy? Cerebral palsy is a group of problems that affect body movement and posture. It is related to a brain injury or to problems with brain development. It is one of the most common causes of lasting disability in children. Cerebral palsy causes reflex movements that a person can't control and...

  • Foods containing carbohydrate are grouped into the following categories. The carbohydrate content is listed in grams (g). If you eat a larger portion, count it as more than one serving. One serving of carbohydrate has 15 grams of carbohydrate. Of course, not all foods contain exactly 15 grams of carbohydrate...

  • Because you have diabetes, you will need to be especially careful to protect your feet from injury. Wear shoes all the time. If you do not want to wear shoes indoors, wear slippers with hard soles and good support. Keep your shoes next to your...

  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) occurs in people with diabetes when the sugar (glucose) level in the blood drops below what the body needs to function normally. If your blood sugar drops below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), you may have symptoms, such as feeling tired, weak, or shaky. If your blood sugar drops...

  • Covers using an asthma action plan for asthma attacks. Explains green, yellow, and red zones in an action plan. Covers what medicines to take in each zone. Reviews what to do if an attack becomes an emergency.

  • Guides through decision of when to do something about your child's bed-wetting. Includes common reasons and home treatment options for bed-wetting. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Guides through decision to have your son circumcised. Describes the circumcision process and what to expect after surgery. Lists common reasons for and against circumcision. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Some babies bite during teething, because they feel discomfort or pain. The most common symptoms of teething include: Swelling, tenderness, or discomfort in the gums at the site of the erupting tooth. Increased saliva, which can cause drooling....

  • Children who are 15 months to 3 years old may bite other people out of frustration or when they want power or control over another person. Some ways you can help prevent a child this age from biting include: Helping the child put words to his or her...

  • What is traveler's diarrhea? Traveler's diarrhea is a common medical problem for people traveling from developed, industrialized countries to developing areas of the world. High-risk areas for traveler's diarrhea include developing countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America. Low-risk areas...

  • You may have started smoking to fit in with your friends. Maybe your parents smoke or your brother chews. Whatever the reason you began using tobacco, there are lots more reasons to stop: Smoking is much more addictive than you may believe. You may...

  • During your adolescent's yearly medical checkup, most doctors: Check your child's height and weight, body mass index, blood pressure, vision, and hearing. Listen to your child's heart and lungs. Also, the doctor will feel the lymph nodes and the...

  • Discusses dealing with negative feelings that can interfere with your ability to follow your diet for diabetes. Provides ways to deal with negative feelings about your diet. Includes links to more info on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  • Use this form to think about any negative feelings you have about diabetes. My feeling is (for example, resentment):_____________________ I have this feeling because I think (for example, I resent the fact that I have diabetes and should eat less of some foods that I like): _______________________________________...

  • When you have diabetes, your feet need extra care and attention. Diabetes can damage the nerve endings and blood vessels in your feet, making you less likely to notice when your feet are injured. Diabetes can also interfere with your body's ability to fight infection. If you develop a minor foot injury, it could become...

  • This information is for people who may need to give a person with diabetes an injection of glucagon during a low blood sugar emergency. Giving a glucagon injection is similar to giving insulin. If possible, practice giving your partner or child an insulin injection at least once a month so you will be more ready if...

  • Explains using plate format as easy way to plan meals. Looks at how it helps keep your blood sugar level from going way up and down. Covers how it can be used with other meal-planning methods. Discusses how it helps you eat healthy foods.

  • Guides through decision to use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medicine for premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Lists home remedies to try for PMS before SSRI. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Describes monitoring blood sugar levels in those with diabetes. Covers list of supplies needed, including blood sugar meter, testing strips, and lancet. Gives step-by-step instructions. Links to info on type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

  • Time-out is a technique used to teach young children how to control their behavior. Time-out is an opportunity for the child to calm down or regain control of his or her behavior. If your child has trouble sharing a toy, you may even decide to put...

  • What is child care? Child care is short-term care by someone other than a parent. There are two basic types of child care: individual and group. Individual providers care for only your child or children. The provider may be a family member or friend, a nanny, an au pair, or a babysitter...

  • As children learn to deal with frustration, fear, and anger, breath-holding spells become less frequent. Parents may be able to prevent some spells by seeing that their child gets plenty of rest and that he or she feels secure. Some ways to help...

  • Before taking your child to a doctor for breath-holding spells, write down what typically happens. These descriptions will help you to give your child's doctor accurate information to make an initial diagnosis. Try to observe and record what happens...

  • Federal laws protect children with diabetes from discrimination in schools and child care settings. Schools and child care centers must provide reasonable help for the special needs of children with diabetes while disrupting the usual routine as little as possible. Also, children should be allowed to take part in all...

  • A menstrual diary is a helpful tool for better understanding your premenstrual symptoms and then deciding how to treat them. Regardless of whether you have full-blown, diagnosable premenstrual syndrome (PMS), your menstrual diary can help you plan ahead for, prevent, and better cope with your premenstrual symptoms. You...

  • Use this form to record a low blood sugar level problem. Fill out a record each time this happens. Take the completed form(s) to the doctor. If you (or your child with diabetes) is having low blood sugar problems, the diabetes medicine dose may need...

  • When you have diabetes, you need to examine your feet every day. Look at all areas of your feet, including your toes. Use a handheld mirror or a magnifying mirror attached to the bathroom wall near the baseboard to inspect your feet. If you can't see well, have someone else use this checklist to examine your feet for...

  • After a major loss, you may feel insecure and unsure about yourself. Maintaining relationships may be a struggle at this time. You may have a difficult time making decisions, paying attention to what others are saying, or taking care of your personal responsibilities. Later, you may not remember some of the events...

  • Active listening is a dynamic process that includes: Paying attention to what another person is saying. Thinking about what the person has just said. Responding in a way that lets the person know that you understood what he or she was trying to say. Hearing is different from listening...

  • Hyperactivity refers to inappropriate or excessive activity for a person's age or situation. Hyperactivity is not always a continuous behavior, as is often assumed. A person who has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity...

  • What is molluscum contagiosum? Molluscum contagiosum is a skin infection that causes small pearly or flesh-colored bumps. The bumps may be clear, and the center often is indented. The infection is caused by a virus. The virus is easily spread but is not harmful. What are the symptoms? The bumps are round with a...

  • People often think that following a diet for diabetes means giving up foods they like and having to eat foods they don't like. If you think a diet for diabetes means you can't eat any of the foods you like, try this: Write down what foods are good for you, which are bad for you, which foods you like, and which foods you...

  • Children with diabetes should participate in their treatment to the extent that is fitting for their age and experience with the disease. Toddlers and preschool-aged children usually aren't able to do tasks for diabetes care such as giving insulin...

  • Keeping your blood sugar in a target range reduces your risk of problems such as diabetic eye disease ( retinopathy), kidney disease ( nephropathy), and nerve disease ( neuropathy). Some people can work toward lower numbers, and some people may need higher goals. For example, some children and adolescents with...

  • Little Leaguer's elbow occurs in young baseball players who throw the ball too hard or too often (for example, more than 80 times twice a week). The growing part of the elbow, called the growth center (physis), widens and enlarges a part of the...

  • If you drink cow's milk or eat dairy products that contain cow's milk while breastfeeding, the milk protein and sugars are passed on to your baby. Protein and sugars from cow's milk are also ingredients in most formulas. Some babies are sensitive to...

  • Fructose and sorbitol are two sugars that often are added to processed foods and medicines to make them taste sweet. Fructose can be found in soda pop and many fruit juice drinks. Sorbitol is found in diet products, chewing gum, candy, frozen ice...

  • There are many myths about Tourette's disorder (TD). Myth Truth "Everyone who has Tourette's disorder uses obscene words and gestures." Most people who have the condition do not have this symptom. "People who have Tourette's disorder often 'blow up'...

  • You may choose to wait until your child is a toddler (ages 1 to 2 years) or older to wean him or her from the breast. You may feel that your toddler isn't ready for weaning until later or that you both aren't ready. You may want to initiate it or just let your child stop breastfeeding on his or her own (self-wean)...

  • Sometimes a mother wants to stop breastfeeding, but her baby shows signs of wanting to continue. If possible, continue breastfeeding a while longer. If this is not possible, the following suggestions may help you: Offer breast milk pumped from your...

  • Some babies grow attached to the bottle and do not want to give it up. Here are some common behaviors and suggestions on how to deal with them. Your baby always wants to have a bottle in his or her mouth. Do not let your baby crawl, walk around, or...

  • Many of the tips for weaning babies from bottle-feeding can be used for toddlers (ages 1 to 2). Here are some suggestions unique to toddlers: Do not allow a toddler to carry the bottle around. This can help prevent injuries if your toddler falls and...

  • Insulin is used to treat people who have diabetes. Each type of insulin acts over a specific amount of time. The amount of time can be affected by exercise, diet, illness, some medicines, stress, the dose, how you take it, or where you inject it. The table below is a general guide. Your results may be different...

  • If your child has epilepsy, there are many ways to lower his or her risk of injury and avoid embarrassment sometimes caused by seizures: Use waterproof pads on cribs and beds, and use padded side rails on your older child's bed. But don't use sleep...

  • Feeding a baby who has cleft palate can be a challenge. Your baby may have a problem making a tight seal between his or her mouth and the nipple. But with a little preparation, you can successfully feed your baby with breast milk or formula. A...

  • Guides through decision to have your child have surgery for scoliosis. Discusses curves of the spine and when surgery is normally the best choice for treatment. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Insulin can become damaged and ineffective if it is not stored properly. Unopened insulin that is packaged in small glass bottles (vials) should be stored in the refrigerator. Liquid insulin that is packaged in small cartridges (containing several doses) is more stable. These cartridges are used in...

  • Some medicines for conditions other than diabetes can raise your blood sugar level. This is a concern when you have diabetes. Make sure every doctor you see knows about all of the medicines, vitamins, or herbal supplements you take. This means...

  • An asthma action plan is based on zones defined by your symptoms, your peak flow, or both. It tells you what to do if you or your child has a sudden increase in asthma symptoms (asthma attack). The green zone of the asthma action plan is where a...

  • Many caregivers use infant massage to relax and promote the emotional bond with their baby. It can help relax your baby, prevent crying, and soothe and comfort your crying baby. Many hospitals and child care centers provide classes on infant...

  • Diabetes is a disease in which the body either does not produce or is unable to use the hormone insulin properly. The pancreas produces insulin, which helps the body use sugar (glucose) from foods. If the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, or if the body cannot use the insulin properly, blood sugar levels rise and...

  • Infantile spasms (West syndrome) are muscle spasms that affect a child's head, torso, and limbs. Infantile spasms usually begin before the age of 6 months. Most children with infantile spasms have below-average intelligence. More than half have...

  • Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a severe form of childhood epilepsy that causes frequent seizures. Several types of seizures are usually present at the same time, including atonic or tonic seizures. These seizures can cause injury. Lennox-Gastaut...

  • A rubber (aspirating) bulb can be used to remove mucus from a baby's nose or mouth when a cold or allergies make it hard for the baby to eat or sleep. It is best to use the rubber bulb to clean the baby's nose before feedings and before the baby...

  • Tape occlusion is an inexpensive method of wart removal that involves covering the wart with tape. It is often called the "duct tape" method. Cut a piece of duct tape as close to the size of the wart as possible. Leave the tape in place for 6 days....

  • Discusses diarrhea in those 11 and younger. Covers causes such as infection or inflammatory bowel disease. Offers home treatment tips. Discusses signs of dehydration. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor.

  • Discusses diarrhea in older children and adults. Covers causes and symptoms such as abdominal pain and black or bloody stools. Offers home treatment tips. Discusses signs of dehydration. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor.

  • Diaper rash (diaper dermatitis) is a skin problem caused by the skin staying wet, rubbing from the diaper, and contact with chemicals in the urine and stool. The skin may look red, raw, scalded, or burned. While a diaper rash is uncomfortable, generally it is not a serious problem. Diaper rash is the most common skin...

  • Covers when feelings of sadness or anxiety may indicate need for treatment for depression. Offers tips to help with depression. Explains emergency symptoms, like talk about suicide. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor.

  • Ear pain in children may be a sign of an infection in the space behind the eardrum ( middle ear). Ear infections (otitis media) most commonly occur when cold symptoms, such as a runny or stuffy nose and a cough, have been present for a few days. An...

  • Ear problems may be caused by many different health problems. In children, ear pain is more likely to be a symptom of an inflammation, infection, or fluid buildup in the external or middle ear. But ear pain at any age may be a symptom of: Infection of the middle ear ( acute otitis media). Inflammation or infection of...

  • Covers common causes of elbow injuries. Discusses injuries caused by sudden injury and those caused by overuse. Discusses treatment options. Offers interactive tool to help you decide when to see a doctor. Covers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • At one time or another, everyone has had a minor facial injury that caused pain, swelling, or bruising. Home treatment is usually all that is needed for mild bumps or bruises. Causes of facial injuries Facial injuries most commonly occur during: Sports or recreational activities, such as ice hockey, basketball...

  • Discusses fever seizures (also called fever convulsions) caused by a rapid rise in body temperature in a short period of time. Offers home treatment and prevention tips. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to seek care.

  • Discusses fevers in children age 11 and younger. Includes info on temperatures considered normal, mild fever, or high fever. Offers home treatment tips to reduce fever. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor.

  • Discusses fevers in those age 12 and older. Includes info on temperatures considered normal, mild fever, or high fever. Covers causes of fever and offers home treatment tips. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to see a doctor.

  • Looks at common causes of minor and serious head injuries. Discusses possible head injury emergencies. Offers tool to help you check symptoms and decide when to call a doctor. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Provides overview of head injuries in those age 3 and younger. Offers tool to help you check symptoms and decide when to see doctor. Discusses emergency symptoms and when to seek care. Offers prevention tips.

  • A hip problem can be hard to deal with, both for the child who has the problem and to the parent or caregiver. A child who has a hip problem may feel pain in the hip, groin, thigh, or knee. A child in pain may limp or be unable or unwilling to...

  • Hip pain can make it hard to walk, go up and down stairs, squat, or sleep on the side that hurts. A clicking or snapping feeling or sound around your hip joint (snapping hip) may bother you or cause you to worry. But if your hip is not painful, in many cases the click or snap is nothing to worry about. Home treatment...

  • Discusses heat-related illnesses. Looks at heatstroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heat rash, and dehydration. Covers signs and symptoms. Offers home treatment and prevention tips. Covers emergency first aid treatment.

  • Stretching and strengthening exercises can help a child who has juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) control pain and stiffness and maintain mobility. A physical therapist can help figure out how much exercise is appropriate for each child. Stretching exercises are those in which the joints are moved through...

  • Most medical professionals recommend letting a baby eat on demand. But during the first few days of breastfeeding, be sure to awaken your baby for feedings about every 2 hours. This will help to get your milk supply going. To make the transition...

  • Most infants lose up to 10% of their birth weight in the first week. A baby's weight decreases from the normal loss of fluid, urine, and stool. Babies also get few calories from early breastfeeding patterns. Their bodies have special fat stores for...

  • Pain during breastfeeding is a sign of a problem and should not be ignored. Although sore or tender nipples are common during the first few days of breastfeeding, it should improve. Normal soreness or pain usually occurs for about a minute when the baby first latches on to the breast. Pain that is severe or continuous...

  • What is fifth disease? Fifth disease is a very common childhood illness. Adults can get it too. It is sometimes called slapped-cheek disease because of the rash that some people get on the face. You spread the disease by coughing and sneezing. Fifth disease is usually a mild illness that lasts a few weeks. It...

  • Covers the causes and symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, also called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Looks at treatment with NSAIDs, physical therapy, and possibly shots of steroid medicine. Includes tips for helping your child cope with JIA.

  • Epilepsy that causes partial seizures is sometimes called focal epilepsy, because the seizures start at a specific focus or location within the brain. In people with this type of disorder, the electrical charges that cause seizures begin in a...

  • You sometimes may notice that your milk does not flow easily, or let down, when you attempt to breastfeed or use a breast pump. Emotional stress, fatigue, anxiety, smoking, pain, or being cold are common causes of poor let-down. With poor let-down, you may not experience the tingling and leaking of milk that usually...

  • Talking with your partner may help your erection problems (erectile dysfunction). Couples often assume that they each know what the other person likes when it comes to sex. Sometimes they are wrong. Don't assume. Tell your partner what you do and...

  • What is lead poisoning? Lead poisoning occurs when you absorb too much lead by breathing or swallowing a substance with lead in it, such as paint, dust, water, or food. Lead can damage almost every organ system. In children, too much lead in the body can cause lasting problems with growth and development. These...

  • Although most cases of influenza (flu) get better without causing other problems, complications sometimes develop. Possible complications of flu include: Pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs. Primary influenza viral pneumonia develops...

  • All children Use the guidelines below to schedule routine vision checks and eye exams with your pediatrician or family doctor. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) recommend that all children have an eye exam during the newborn period and again at all routine...

  • Many people choose not to have the influenza vaccine because of myths they believe about the disease or the vaccine. Myth: Influenza is a minor illness. Truth: Influenza and its complications caused from 3,000 to 49,000 deaths each year from 1976 to...

  • Discusses symptoms of the flu, which is caused by the influenza virus. Covers how it's spread and when people who have the flu are contagious. Discusses prevention, including getting the influenza vaccine. Offers home treatment tips.

  • Immunization against the hepatitis A virus (HAV) is recommended for anyone traveling to any country or area except: Australia. Canada. Japan. New Zealand. The United States. Western Europe and the Scandinavian countries (Norway, Sweden, and Finland). Talk to your doctor...

  • Talk to your doctor before you take any prescription or nonprescription medicine while breastfeeding. That's because some medicines can affect your breast milk. But many medicines are safe to use when you breastfeed. These include certain pain...

  • Women who have had breast implants or surgery to remove cysts or benign (noncancerous) lumps usually are able to breastfeed. Women who have had surgery to make their breasts smaller (breast reduction) may have trouble breastfeeding if the milk ducts...

  • If you are breastfeeding, many substances that you eat, drink, inhale, or inject end up in your breast milk and may harm your baby. Smoking cigarettes or chewing tobacco may reduce your milk production and inhibit the let-down reflex. It also may...

  • Some aspects of breastfeeding may come naturally. But learning some breastfeeding skills and techniques can help you be more successful. Before your baby is born, take classes, read books, and watch videos that demonstrate breastfeeding techniques....

  • Breastfeeding in the proper position will help your baby latch on and breastfeed correctly and make your experience more enjoyable. Also, when you are in a comfortable and relaxed position, let-down occurs more easily. You are more likely to drain...

  • Most mothers can produce enough milk to breastfeed two or more babies. If you have twins or triplets, breastfeeding becomes more physically and emotionally challenging. But with support and guidance, you can be successful. Breastfeeding fosters the...

  • Relactation is the attempt to start producing breast milk at a time when your body normally would not. A woman may try relactation when she: Adopts a baby and has breastfed before. Stopped breastfeeding her baby and now has changed her mind and...

  • A cesarean delivery may delay the start of breastfeeding. You may be sleepy from medicine or in pain from the surgery. Try breastfeeding your baby as soon as you are able. Ask whether your baby can be brought into the recovery room to be held and...

  • You usually can continue breastfeeding your child if you become pregnant. If you breastfeed while you are pregnant, be aware of the following issues: Breastfeeding during pregnancy is not recommended if you are at risk for preterm labor....

  • You can continue to breastfeed after you return to work. But it is important to think ahead about practical issues, such as where to store your pumped milk. Some issues to consider include: Employer support. Before your child is born, talk to your employer about your breastfeeding plans. Point out the...

  • If you are breastfeeding, your doctor may suggest that you eat more calories each day than otherwise recommended for a person of your height and weight. Be sure to ask your doctor about how much and what to eat if you: Are very active. Begin to lose weight rapidly. Are breastfeeding more than one...

  • Rest and sleep are important to breastfeeding women for keeping up their energy and their milk production. Avoid or limit caffeine, especially in the hours before bedtime. Caffeine can keep you awake. Use the evening hours for settling down. Avoid...

  • Keep the following in mind as you start an exercise program or try to lose weight while you are breastfeeding. Exercise Being active helps promote weight loss, improves your energy level, and can help you relieve stress. Follow these tips when you start an exercise program while you are breastfeeding...

  • Breastfeeding can be used as a method of birth control, called the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM). But three conditions must be met to ensure its effectiveness: Your baby must be 6 months of age or younger. After your baby is 6 months old, you are much more likely to become pregnant and need to use another...

  • Childbirth and breastfeeding may affect your sexual desire. Exhaustion, breast soreness, your baby's demands, and recovery from childbirth may reduce your interest in intimacy with your partner. But you may feel more comfortable having sex after the...

  • It is important to have breastfeeding support from your doctors, nurses, and hospital staff who care for you and your baby. Fortunately, most people involved in health care are aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. Before having your baby,...

  • You can safely exercise when you have diabetes. Here are some tips. Talk to your doctor about how and when to exercise. You may need to have a medical exam and tests (such as a treadmill test) before you begin. Also, some types of exercise can be...

  • Travel can make it hard to keep your blood sugar within your target range because of changes in time zones, meal schedules, and types of foods available. Whenever you need to see a doctor away from home, let him or her know you have diabetes. And...

  • You can help protect the person in your care by making the home safe. Pad sharp corners on furniture and countertops. Keep objects that are often used within easy reach. Install handrails around the toilet and in the shower. Use a tub mat to prevent slipping. Use a shower chair or bath bench when...

  • What is Rh sensitization during pregnancy? If you are Rh-negative, your red blood cells do not have a marker called Rh factor on them. Rh-positive blood does have this marker. If your blood mixes with Rh-positive blood, your immune system will react to the Rh factor by making antibodies to destroy it. This immune...

  • An indirect Coombs test can be used to determine whether there are antibodies to the Rh factor in the mother's blood. In this case: A normal (negative) result means that the mother has not developed antibodies against the fetus's blood. A negative...

  • What is thrush? Thrush is a yeast infection that causes white patches in the mouth and on the tongue. Thrush is most common in babies and older adults, but it can occur at any age. Thrush in babies is usually not serious. What causes thrush? You get thrush when a yeast called Candida, normally found on the body...

  • Covers symptoms of PMS such as bloating, muscle aches, and mood swings. Discusses possible causes and what increases your risk. Covers treatment with lifestyle changes, antidepressants, or birth control pills. Covers surgery for severe form (PMDD).

  • Fetal blood sampling (FBS) is the collecting of fetal blood directly from the umbilical cord or fetus. The fetal blood is tested for signs of anemia and other blood problems. FBS is also known as cordocentesis or percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling. FBS is usually used when a Doppler ultrasound and/or a...

  • It's important to keep your son's penis clean whether he has been circumcised or not. Keeping your young son's penis clean may help prevent infections and other problems. As your son gets older, teach him how to wash and care for his penis. Cleaning a natural penis Do not force the foreskin back over...

  • What is circumcision? Male circumcision is a surgery to remove the foreskin, a fold of skin that covers and protects the rounded tip of the penis. The foreskin provides sensation and lubrication for the penis. After the foreskin is removed, it can't be put back on again. See a picture of the penis before and after...

  • Ear tubes are plastic and shaped like a hollow spool. Doctors suggest tubes for children who have repeat ear infections or when fluid stays behind the eardrum. A specialist ( otolaryngologist) places the tubes through a small surgical opening made in the eardrum (myringotomy or tympanostomy). The child is unconscious...

  • What is cleft lip? Cleft lip is a treatable birth defect. It happens when the tissues of the upper jaw and nose don't join as expected during fetal development. This causes a split (cleft) in the lip. A cleft lip may be complete or incomplete. With either type, it may involve one or both sides of the upper lip...

  • Asthma is a challenging condition. It can affect all areas of your child's life. Many children with asthma miss school days. When this happens, have your child call a friend to ask about the work he or she missed. Doing this both keeps your child's...

  • An asthma action plan is based on zones defined by your symptoms or your peak flow, or both. It tells you what to do if you have a sudden increase in your asthma symptoms (asthma attack). The yellow zone may mean that you are having an asthma attack...

  • An asthma action plan is based on zones defined by your symptoms, your peak flow, or both. It tells you what to do if you have a sudden increase in your asthma symptoms (asthma attack). You are in the red zone of your asthma action plan if you have...

  • An asthma attack (also called an acute asthma episode, flare-up, or exacerbation) is a sudden increase in the symptoms of asthma, including: Rapid, shallow, and difficult breathing. Feeling that you cannot take a deep breath (chest tightness)....

  • An asthma attack is a short period when breathing becomes difficult, sometimes along with chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing. When this happens during or after exercise, it is known as exercise-induced asthma or exercise-induced bronchospasm....

  • It can be difficult to know whether your child is having a mild, moderate, or severe asthma attack. The following chart may help you. Talk with a doctor if you are unable to tell how severe your child's symptoms are. Factor Mild attack Moderate...

  • Educating yourself and your family about asthma is essential for you and your child to have control of the disease. If you understand asthma, you will have an easier time following the different aspects of treatment, such as avoiding substances that cause symptoms (triggers) and knowing what to do during an asthma...

  • Jaundice is a yellow tint to a newborn's skin and the white part of the eyes. It is a sign that there's too much bilirubin in the baby's blood. The word for having too much bilirubin in the blood is hyperbilirubinemia (say...

  • Social skills training helps the child or adult who has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) be less aggressive and impulsive, manage anger, and behave in a more socially acceptable way. Techniques include: Coaching. Role-playing....

  • Some of the misconceptions about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include the following: Myths and facts about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Myth Fact There is no such medical condition as ADHD. ADHD is a medical disorder, not a condition of the child's will. A child...

  • For many people, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) gets in the way of sex. Being out of breath makes things difficult. Just thinking about it can make you want to avoid sex. But it doesn't have to be like that. To start, think through...

  • Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a hip problem a baby is born with or that happens in the first year of life. In this condition, the top of the thighbone doesn't fit securely into the hip socket. This problem may affect one or both hip...

  • Discusses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which in the past was called attention deficit disorder (ADD). Covers symptoms including inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Discusses treatment with medicines like Ritalin, and behavior therapy.

  • What is tinea versicolor? Tinea versicolor (say "TIH-nee-uh VER-sih-kuh-ler") is a fungal infection that causes many small, flat spots on the skin. The spots can be flaky or mildly itchy. The many small spots may blend into large patchy areas, usually on the oily parts of the upper body like the chest and back. The...

  • Strabismus (say "struh-BIZ-mus") is a vision problem in which both eyes do not look at the same point at the same time. Strabismus most often begins in early childhood. It is sometimes called crossed-eyes, walleye, or squint. Normally, the muscles...

  • Children with Down syndrome can learn to eat by themselves with your help and encouragement. Eating independently is a developmental milestone that involves the use of small muscles (fine motor skills), large muscles (gross motor skills), and...

  • As your child with Down syndrome enters puberty, grooming and hygiene become increasingly important. Your child may need to learn new habits to stay well groomed. Cleanliness is very important for proper socialization and acceptance by peers. Stress...

  • Children with Down syndrome have reduced muscle tone, which can delay development of their motor skills. Children with delays may roll over, sit up, pull up, stand, and walk later than other children their age. Encourage motor skill development...

  • Children with Down syndrome usually have delayed speech and language development. Typically, these children have a much harder time learning to talk (expressive language) than with understanding what they hear (receptive language). On average,...

  • What is Down syndrome? Down syndrome is a set of physical and mental traits caused by a gene problem that happens before birth. Children who have Down syndrome tend to have certain features, such as a flat face and a short neck. They also have some degree of intellectual disability. This varies from person to person...

  • What is shaken baby syndrome? If you want to save this information but don't think it is safe to take it home, see if a trusted friend can keep it for you. Plan ahead. Know who you can call for help, and memorize the phone number. Be careful online too. Your online activity may be seen by others. Do not use your...

  • Spina bifida is a type of birth defect called a neural tube defect. It occurs when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) don't form properly around part of the baby's spinal cord. Spina bifida can be mild or severe. The mild form is the most common. It...

  • What are temper tantrums? If you have a young child, you probably know what temper tantrums are. Experts define them as sudden, unplanned displays of anger or other emotions. During a tantrum, children often whine, cry, or scream. They may also swing their arms and legs wildly or hold their breath. Anyone can have...

  • Is thumb-sucking normal? Thumb-sucking is normal in babies and young children. Most babies and toddlers suck their thumbs. They may also suck on their fingers, hands, or items such as pacifiers. Little by little, most children stop on their own at age 3 to 6 years. Why do babies suck their thumbs? Babies have a...

  • When should I start toilet training my child? Your child must be both physically and emotionally ready for toilet training. Most children are ready to start when they are between 22 and 30 months of age, but every child is different. Toilet training usually becomes a long and frustrating process if you try to start it...

  • What is Tourette's disorder? Tourette's disorder is a brain condition that starts in childhood. Children with Tourette's make sounds or movements—such as coughing or twitching—that they can't control. These are called tics. Tics usually start at about age 2. They may be at their worst by age 12. Tics tend to decrease...

  • Having a sick child can be very tiring. Taking care of yourself is an important part of helping your child recover. Here are some things to try: Share the responsibility of care with your partner, relatives, or other support persons. Remember to...

  • What is respiratory syncytial virus infection? Respiratory syncytial virus infection, usually called RSV, is a lot like a bad cold. It causes the same symptoms. And like a cold, it is very common and very contagious. Most children have had it at least once by age 2. RSV is usually not something to worry about. But it...

  • What is lactose intolerance? Lactose intolerance means the body cannot easily digest lactose, a type of natural sugar found in milk and dairy products. This is not the same thing as a food allergy to milk. When lactose moves through the large intestine (colon) without being properly digested, it can cause...

  • Discusses ways to relieve pain from menstrual cramps that usually start before or at the beginning of your period. Includes steps you can take such as applying heat on your belly or getting regular exercise. Covers over-the-counter medicines that can help.

  • Chronic lung disease in an infant means that damaged tissue in the newborn's lungs is causing breathing and health problems. The lungs trap air or collapse, fill with fluid, and produce extra mucus. Most babies who have chronic lung disease survive....

  • What is craniosynostosis? Craniosynostosis (say "kray-nee-oh-sih-noh-STOH-sus") is a problem with the skull that causes a baby's head to be oddly shaped. In rare cases it causes pressure on the baby's brain, which can cause damage. It is also called craniostenosis. A baby's skull is not just one bowl-shaped...

  • What is Kawasaki disease? Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood illness that affects the blood vessels. The symptoms can be severe for several days and can look scary to parents. But then most children return to normal activities. Kawasaki disease can harm the coronary arteries, which carry blood to the heart...

  • What is mumps? Mumps is a contagious viral infection that can cause painful swelling of the salivary glands, especially the parotid glands (between the ear and the jaw). Some people with mumps won't have gland swelling. They may feel like they have a bad cold or the flu instead. Mumps usually goes away on its...

  • What is pyloric stenosis? Pyloric stenosis is a problem with a baby's stomach that causes forceful vomiting. It happens when the baby's pylorus, which connects the stomach and the small intestine, swells and thickens. This can keep food from moving into the intestine. A baby may get pyloric stenosis anytime between...

  • What is rubella? Rubella is a very contagious (easily spread) illness caused by the rubella virus. It is usually a mild illness. But in rare cases, it may cause more serious problems. If you are pregnant and get infected with the rubella virus, your baby (fetus) could become infected too. This can cause birth...

  • Complications from ear infections are rare, but they can arise. Some problems that can occur include: Trouble hearing. Hearing problems are usually mild to moderate and are usually temporary. Long-lasting hearing loss is rare. But some children may...

  • Discusses Tay-Sachs disease, a genetic disorder in which little or no hex A enzyme is produced by the body. Discusses screening. Covers symptoms to watch for in babies and young children. Covers late-onset Tay-Sachs disease.

  • Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is a problem that is present at birth. It happens when the tissue that attaches the tongue to the bottom of the mouth (lingual frenulum) is too short. This can limit the movement of the tongue. See a picture of tongue-tie....

  • What is Hirschsprung's disease? Hirschsprung's disease is a birth defect that affects the nerve cells in the large intestine. These nerve cells control the muscles that normally push food and waste through the large intestine. In babies who have Hirschsprung's disease, the muscles in the wall of the large intestine...

  • Tympanocentesis is the removal of fluid from behind the eardrum. The doctor uses a special needle with a tube attached to collect the sample of fluid. A culture and sensitivity test is usually done on the sample of fluid. Before the test, your child may get medicine to help him or her relax. Or a doctor or nurse may...

  • Tympanometry tests the movement of the eardrum when an ear infection or other middle ear problem is suspected. A doctor places the tip of a handheld tool into the child's ear. The tool changes the air pressure inside the ear and produces a clear tone. Then the tool measures how the eardrum responds to the pressure and...

  • Is this topic for you? This topic covers infections of the middle ear, commonly called ear infections. For information on outer ear infections, see the topic Ear Canal Problems (Swimmer's Ear). For information on inner ear infections, see the topic Labyrinthitis. What is a middle ear infection? The middle ear is the...

  • Lung transplant is an option for a few people who have severe lung problems that are caused by cystic fibrosis. The procedure removes the diseased lungs and replaces them with healthy lungs from a recently deceased donor. Sometimes a procedure called a living-donor lobar lung transplant is performed while a person is...

  • What is cystic fibrosis? Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that causes mucus in the body to become thick and sticky. This glue-like mucus builds up and causes problems in many of the body's organs, especially the lungs and the pancreas. People who have cystic fibrosis can have serious breathing problems and lung...

  • Covers safer sex practices like abstinence, using condoms, watching for symptoms of STIs, and limiting number of sex partners you have. Includes list of questions to ask someone before having sex.

  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a treatment to increase a person's blood oxygen level, which can prevent tissue death, promote healing, and help fight infection. This treatment involves a person being in an enclosed chamber while 100% oxygen is pumped in at high pressure. The purpose of oxygen therapy for the...

  • What is carbon monoxide poisoning? Carbon monoxide poisoning happens when you breathe too much carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a gas produced by burning any type of fuel—gas, oil, kerosene, wood, or charcoal. What makes this gas so dangerous is that when you breathe it, it replaces the oxygen in your blood...

  • What is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)? Sometimes a baby who seems healthy dies during sleep. This is called sudden infant death syndrome or SIDS. In most cases, a parent or caregiver places the baby down to sleep and returns later to find the baby has died. It's no one's fault. SIDS can happen even when...

  • Vaginal intercourse can be continued as usual if your pregnancy is uncomplicated. Discuss any concerns or questions with your doctor. Sex during the first trimester will not cause any problems, such as a miscarriage. The fetus will not be harmed...

  • What is congenital hydrocephalus? Congenital hydrocephalus is a buildup of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain at birth. The extra fluid can increase pressure in the baby's brain, causing brain damage and mental and physical problems. This condition is rare. Finding the condition early and treating it...

  • What is measles? Measles is a very contagious (easily spread) infection that causes a rash all over your body. It is also called rubeola or red measles. The measles vaccine protects against the illness. This vaccine is part of the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) and MMRV (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella...

  • You may wish to consider adoption as an alternative to treatment for infertility. Learning more about the tests, exams, success rates, and costs of infertility treatment may help you decide. Adoption provides people with an opportunity to raise and...

  • The test for Tay-Sachs disease measures the amount of an enzyme called hexosaminidase A (hex A) in the blood. Hex A breaks down fatty substances in the brain and nerves. Tay-Sachs is an inherited disease in which the body can't break down fatty substances as it should, so the fatty substances collect in the nerve cells...

  • Scratching chickenpox blisters can lead to skin infections, not to mention scarring. In rare cases, infected chickenpox lesions can lead to toxic shock syndrome. To keep children from scratching chickenpox blisters: Clean and closely trim your...

  • Discusses vaccine-preventable illness that causes itchy rash and red spots or blisters (pox) all over the body. Covers home treatment, including resting and taking medicines to reduce fever, itching. Includes info on shingles.

  • Moisture alarms are the most successful single treatment for bed-wetting. They work best for older children who can hear the alarm and wake themselves. If attempts to use a reward system (motivational therapy), drink most fluids in the...

  • Swimmer's ear (otitis externa) is a painful inflammation and infection of the ear canal. It occurs when the protective film that covers the ear canal (lipid layer) is removed. This causes the ear canal to look red and swollen. The ear canal may be narrower than normal and is tender when the outside of the ear is gently...

  • Motivational therapy for bed-wetting uses praise, encouragement, and rewards to help a child gain bladder control. It's about telling children that they have control of their bodies and encouraging them to take steps that bring about more and more...

  • What is bed-wetting? Bed-wetting is urination during sleep. Children learn bladder control at different ages. Children younger than 4 often wet their beds or clothes, because they can't yet control their bladder. But by age 5 or 6 most children can stay dry through the night. Bed-wetting is defined as a child age 5 or...

  • Phototherapy is the supervised use of ultraviolet (UV) light to treat skin conditions, including atopic dermatitis. Ultraviolet B (UVB), ultraviolet A (UVA), or a combination of UVB and UVA may be used during therapy. During phototherapy, you stand in a booth that contains light tubes that give off UV light. Goggles...

  • Covers long-lasting skin problem which is also known as eczema or atopic eczema. Looks at symptoms like dry skin, itching, and a red, raised rash. Covers treatments including using moisturizing creams and medicines. Offers prevention tips.

  • Discusses test to measure blood sugar (glucose) levels in those who have diabetes. Covers why and how it is done. Looks at what might affect the test. Covers risks.

  • A home ear examination is a visual inspection of the ear canal and eardrum using an instrument called an otoscope. An otoscope is a handheld instrument with a light, a magnifying lens, and a funnel-shaped viewing piece with a narrow, pointed end called a speculum. A home ear examination can help detect many ear...

  • Discusses test kits you can get without a prescription to use at home to check for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Looks at how test is done and how to prepare. Discusses possible results.

  • A bacterial infection may develop following infection with viral influenza. Signs of a bacterial infection include: Feeling short of breath. A fever that doesn't go away. A cough that lingers more than 7 to 10 days after other symptoms have...

  • Emotional growth is a process of developing feelings and learning how to handle them appropriately. Sadness, fear, anger, and happiness are our most common feelings. Every child has emotional needs. Meeting those needs is one of the most important...

  • A growth chart is a graph used to track a child's growth and development over time. At each of your child's well-child visits, the doctor will measure: Length (height). A baby's length is measured while lying down, from the top of the head to the...

  • Babies' nails can be different lengths at birth and grow at different rates. As you bathe your baby, check the length of his or her nails. Trim the nails if they extend beyond his or her fingertips, to prevent scratching. A baby's nails can be...

  • How do babies grow and develop in the first year? Babies change more in the first year of life than at any other time. From 1 to 12 months of age, most babies grow and develop in these main areas: Physical development. A baby's growth is dramatic during this first year. Babies grow taller, and their...

  • People who have sickle cell disease can sometimes have vision problems. Blood cells that change shape, or "sickle," can get trapped in blood vessels, blocking the blood flow. When this blockage occurs in the small blood vessels in the inner lining...

  • Discusses problems with how a baby's heart forms. Also looks at problems found when a person is an adult. Includes info on patent ductus arteriosus, aortic valve stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta. Covers treatment with medicine and surgery.

  • Splenic sequestration is a problem with the spleen that can happen in people who have sickle cell disease. Splenic sequestration happens when a lot of sickled red blood cells become trapped in the spleen. The spleen can enlarge, get damaged, and not...

  • Stem cell transplantation is a potential cure for sickle cell disease. Stem cells can be found in bone marrow. Bone marrow is the substance in the center of your bones that produces red blood cells. A person with sickle cell disease has bone marrow that produces red blood cells with defective hemoglobin S. But if that...

  • Other tests for lung infections, such as pneumonia and acute bronchitis, may include: Blood tests or cultures. Blood tests may help tell whether antibodies to a specific organism that can cause pneumonia are present or whether specific viruses, such as influenza (flu) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)...

  • Describes sickle cell disease. Covers causes and symptoms. Discusses how it is diagnosed. Covers treatment as the disease progresses, including with surgery or medicines like hydroxyurea. Offers home treatment tips.

  • Caring for a child with a congenital heart defect can be challenging. The following tips may help you care for your child so that he or she is as healthy and comfortable as possible. These tips may also help you cope with the difficulties that parents often experience. Caring for your child in the hospital...

  • A heart catheterization is a procedure used for both diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects. As a test, this procedure allows doctors to see how blood flows through the heart chambers and arteries. As a treatment, the doctor can use special tools to fix a heart defect during this procedure. How is it...

  • Children who are depressed may have the same symptoms as adults. But adults may believe that these symptoms are normal in children. Some signs that may alert adults that children are depressed include: Being irritable and crying for no reason you...

  • These are some things you can do to help your 1- to 2-year-old learn words and say simple sentences: Tell your child what you are doing. Say, "I am changing your diaper" and "I'm washing your face" when interacting with your child. Always speak...

  • What is speech and language development? Speech and language are the skills we use to communicate with others. We form these skills during the first years of life. By age 6, most children learn the basics. Try to talk and read to your child often to boost these skills. What is the difference between speech and...

  • Between 1948 and 1971, millions of women took a drug called diethylstilbestrol (DES) to prevent miscarriage. Daughters born to women who took DES while pregnant have a slightly higher risk of developing: Abnormal cervical cells that cause an...

  • Some people have problems digesting milk protein or milk sugar ( lactose intolerance). But these problems are very rare in babies. Until your doctor can evaluate your baby, it is usually not advisable to switch formula or stop breastfeeding as a means to remedy suspected food digestion problems. A vast majority of...

  • A diary for colic shows the baby's daily activities and the amount of time spent in each one. The diary should include: Crying and fussing periods. Who was present when the baby was crying? What comfort measures were used? Was the baby being held when the crying began? Sleeping periods. Was the...

  • Do not use unapproved, unproven, or potentially dangerous substances or methods as treatment for your baby who has colic. Gripe water. Varying ingredients are used in blends labeled as gripe water. In some batches, alcohol is a main ingredient....

  • The exact cause of colic is not known. But some breastfeeding mothers have noticed that certain foods seem to cause colic in their babies. It is possible that some foods may affect breast milk and contribute to intestinal gas or other digestive...

  • The challenges of caring for a young baby intensify if your baby is very fussy or cries a lot. Relationships can become strained between parents and baby; between parents; and between parents and other family members, especially other caregivers. Older brothers and sisters may feel resentful, ignored, helpless, or...

  • What is colic? All babies cry, but sometimes a baby will cry for hours at a time, no matter what you do. This extreme type of crying in a baby between 3 weeks and 3 months of age is called colic. Although it is upsetting for parents and caregivers, colic is normal for some babies. Doctors usually diagnose colic...

  • What are breath-holding spells? Breath-holding spells are brief periods when young children stop breathing for up to 1 minute. These spells often cause a child to pass out (lose consciousness). Breath-holding spells usually occur when a young child is angry, frustrated, in pain, or afraid. But the spell is a reflex...

  • What is croup? Croup is a common respiratory problem in young children. It tends to occur in the fall and winter. Its main symptom is a harsh, barking cough. Croup causes swelling and narrowing in the voice box, windpipe, and breathing tubes that lead to the lungs. This can make it hard for your child to breathe...

  • What are cold sores? Cold sores, sometimes called fever blisters, are groups of small blisters on the lip and around the mouth. Often the first sign of a cold sore is a spot that tingles, burns, or itches. A blister usually forms within 24 hours. The skin around the blisters is often red, swollen, and sore. The...

  • Describes acute bronchitis, which is short-term inflammation of the tubes carrying air to the lungs. Explains difference between bronchitis and pneumonia. Includes causes and symptoms like cough. Covers treatment options.

  • Covers type 1 diabetes, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. Describes how pancreas regulates blood sugar (glucose) levels. Includes info on hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Discusses treatments, including insulin.

  • If high blood sugar levels have damaged nerves that go to your skin, you may sweat less, and your skin may become dry and cracked. Damaged skin becomes infected more easily when you have diabetes. To prevent skin problems and allow for early...

  • People with diabetes have a greater risk for gum (periodontal) disease when blood sugar is high. And gum disease can cause higher blood sugar levels, which makes it hard to fight infection, including infections in the mouth. To help prevent dental...

  • The teen years may be the most difficult time for a young person with diabetes and his or her parents. The normal cycle of rapid growth spurts and periods of slow growth along with the normal teenager behaviors of going to bed late, sleeping late,...

  • Some people with diabetes use their insulin syringes and lancets more than once to save money. But makers of syringes and lancets do not recommend using them more than once. Talk with your doctor before reusing these items. Some people who have...

  • Overfeeding a baby often causes the baby discomfort because he or she can't digest all of the breast milk or formula properly. When fed too much, a baby may also swallow air, which can produce gas, increase discomfort in the belly, and lead to...

  • A phenylketonuria (PKU) test is done to check whether a newborn baby has the enzyme needed to use phenylalanine in his or her body. Phenylalanine is an amino acid that is needed for normal growth and development. If a baby's body does not have the enzyme that changes phenylalanine into another amino acid called...

  • If you have heart failure, it is important that you do as much as possible to avoid catching colds, the flu, and other respiratory infections. Although these may be relatively minor illnesses in healthy people, they are more dangerous if you have heart failure, and you are at higher risk for dangerous complications...

  • What kinds of development occur in your baby's first month? Babies are called newborns during their first month of life. Although your newborn sleeps a lot, powerful changes are occurring in the five major areas of development. Physical development. Watching your baby grow in size is part of the fun...

  • A sickle cell test is a blood test done to check for sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disease that causes red blood cells to be deformed ( sickle-shaped). The red blood cells deform because they contain an abnormal type of hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S, instead of the...

  • What is intussusception? Intussusception means that one part of the intestine has folded into itself, like a telescope. This can happen anywhere along the intestinal tract. It usually happens between the lower part of the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine. The part of the intestine that...

  • Looks at reasons babies and children might bite. Offers tips for changing biting behavior, including offering teething rings to teething babies.

  • What is necrotizing enterocolitis? Necrotizing enterocolitis is infection and inflammation of the intestine. It is most common in babies who are born early (premature). Many newborns who have it go on to live healthy lives. But if the infection becomes severe, it can cause severe damage to the intestine, which can be...

  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare genetic disorder in which the body cannot break down an amino acid called phenylalanine (say "fehn-uhl-AL-uh-neen"), which is a part of protein. This substance is found in breast milk, many types of baby formula, and...

  • Children of all ages are exposed to ideas about thinness by parents, peers, and other sources. Starting in grade school, children may become more aware of body image as they compare themselves to others. Adolescents often become extremely concerned...

  • A genetic test checks the DNA of your cells. It can find changes in your genes, or it can check the number, order, and structure of your chromosomes. Testing may be done on samples of body tissue, blood, or other body fluids such as urine or saliva. You inherit half of your genetic information from your mother and...

  • Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are surgeries to remove the tonsils or adenoids. They are: Used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Rarely used to treat snoring in adults. Not used to treat snoring in children. The surgeries almost always require a stay in the hospital.

  • Pinworms are a type of parasite that lives in the digestive system of humans. They are common throughout the world. Adult pinworms are about 0.5 in. (12.7 mm) long and look like little white threads. Pinworm eggs are so tiny, you'd need a microscope...

  • What is gynecomastia? Gynecomastia is overdevelopment of the male breast. In response to too much estrogen (a female hormone) or too little testosterone (a male hormone), the glandular tissue of the breast swells and forms a breast bud (enlarged breast). Gynecomastia can occur in babies, teen boys, and older men...

  • Explains surgery to take out tonsils because of strep throat infections or tonsillitis. Gives info on what to expect after surgery, such as sore throat. Explains how child may feel and act after surgery. Also includes info on risks.

  • Explains rapid strep test to test for bacteria that cause strep throat (streptococcal pharyngitis). Explains when test is done and what results mean.

  • Discusses strep throat, an infection in the throat and tonsils caused by bacteria. Covers symptoms like sore throat and fever. Includes info on rapid strep test and throat culture. Covers treatment with medicines and surgery (tonsillectomy).

  • Discusses teething and what to expect during teething. Covers symptoms and common concerns. Offers home treatment suggestions and tips for keeping your child's teeth healthy. Explains when to call the doctor.

  • Several factors determine whether you have a complicated urinary tract infection. You have symptoms, such as: A high temperature, greater than 101 F (38.3 C). Ongoing nausea, vomiting, and chills. Your condition getting worse in spite of doctor-directed home treatment. You have other risks, such as...

  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in older women and men. Factors that make older adults more likely to develop UTIs include: An immune system that isn't as strong as when the person was younger. A reduced ability to control urination and...

  • A rubella blood test detects antibodies that are made by the immune system to help kill the rubella virus. These antibodies remain in the bloodstream for years. The presence of certain antibodies means a recent infection, a past infection, or that you have been vaccinated against the disease. Rubella (also called...

  • For years, people have used cranberry juice to prevent and help cure urinary tract infections (UTIs). There is limited proof that this is worth trying. Pure cranberry juice, cranberry extract, or cranberry supplements may help prevent repeated UTIs...

  • Discusses urinary tract infection in teens and adults. Covers symptoms and how problems might be diagnosed with urinalysis or a urine culture. Looks at treatment with antibiotics. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • A sweat test measures the amount of salt chemicals (sodium and chloride) in sweat. It is done to help diagnose cystic fibrosis. Normally, sweat on the skin surface contains very little sodium and chloride. People with cystic fibrosis have 2 to 5 times the normal amount of sodium and chloride in their sweat. During the...

  • Cryotherapy involves freezing a wart using a very cold substance (usually liquid nitrogen). Cryotherapy is a standard treatment for warts and can be done in a doctor's office. The liquid nitrogen application usually takes less than a minute. Your doctor may trim the wart with a small knife before applying liquid...

  • Laser surgery uses an intense beam of light, or laser, to burn and destroy the wart tissue. It is usually done in a doctor's office or clinic. Local or general anesthetic may be used, depending on the number of warts to be removed or the size of the area to be treated.

  • Brace (orthotic) treatment for scoliosis is used to prevent spinal curve progression and to maintain a more normal appearance of the back. The goal of brace treatment is to prevent the curve from getting worse. Bracing does not correct a curve. There may be some initial straightening of the spine and the appearance of...

  • In spinal fusion for scoliosis, rods, hooks, wires, or screws are attached to the curved part of the backbone and the spine is straightened. Small pieces of bone, called grafts, are then put over the spine. Bone for grafts is often taken from the person's pelvic bone. The grafts will grow together with the spinal...

  • Is this topic for you? This topic has information about warts on any part of the body except the genitals. For information about warts on the genitals, see the topic Genital Warts. What are warts, and what causes them? A wart is a skin growth caused by some types of the virus called the human papillomavirus (HPV)...

  • Whooping cough (pertussis) is a disease that causes very severe coughing that may last for months. During bursts of violent coughing, you may make a noise that sounds like a "whoop" when you try to take a breath. You can cough so hard that you hurt...

  • Several myths about when a woman can or cannot become pregnant persist, particularly among younger people. Myth Truth You can't get pregnant the first time you have vaginal intercourse. Getting pregnant has nothing to do with how many times you have...

  • Doctors use X-ray images of a person's spine to measure spinal curvature. A curve or angle of the spine is measured in degrees and describes how severe the curve is. (The angle is determined by the intersection of lines projected from the top and...

  • The cosmetic aspects of scoliosis and the braces used to treat it may greatly affect a child or teen. Teenagers may find wearing a brace devastating to their self-image. Most braces should be worn for 20 hours a day or more, usually for several...

  • What is scoliosis? Scoliosis is a problem with the curve in the spine. Many people have some curve in their spine. But a few people have spines that make a large curve from side to side in the shape of the letter "S" or the letter "C." If this curve is severe, it can cause pain and make breathing difficult. The good...

  • What is Reye syndrome? Reye syndrome is a rare but serious disease that most often affects children ages 6 to 12 years old. It can cause brain swelling and liver damage. It may be related to using aspirin to treat viral infections. Reye syndrome can lead to brain damage, liver damage, and death. But if the...

  • The oil (urushiol) that causes the rash from poison ivy, oak, or sumac can be spread to skin from: Sporting equipment, such as fishing rods, balls, baseball bats and gloves, and hockey sticks. Lawn and garden tools, such as lawn mower handles,...

  • If you have contact with poison ivy, oak, or sumac, immediately wash areas of the skin that may have touched the plant. Sometimes the resulting rash (contact dermatitis) can be completely avoided by washing the affected areas with plenty of water...

  • A rash caused by poison ivy, oak, or sumac may itch and produce blisters. If you get a mild rash, you can take care of it at home. Here are some tips to help with itching: Apply a cool, wet cloth for 15 to 30 minutes several times a day. Take short,...

  • Discusses rash (also called contact dermatitis) caused by touching poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac. Covers risks. Offers home treatment and prevention tips. Covers medicines to relieve symptoms.

  • This test measures the amount of lead in a person's blood. Lead is a poisonous (toxic) metal that can damage the brain and other parts of the body. A lead test may be done on blood drawn from the vein, a finger (finger stick), or the heel (heel stick). A person can be exposed to lead: By eating or drinking...

  • Covers blood test that checks the amount of sugar (glucose) bound to hemoglobin. Explains that test is done to check how well you are managing your diabetes. Covers how it is done and discusses results.

  • What is breastfeeding? Breastfeeding is feeding a baby milk from the mother's breasts. You can feed your baby right at your breast. You can also pump your breasts and put the milk in a bottle to feed your baby. Doctors advise breastfeeding for 1 year or longer. But your baby benefits from any amount of breastfeeding...

  • Inflammatory eye disease (uveitis) can develop as a complication in children who have juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Children and adults who have JIA can develop cataracts, glaucoma, corneal degeneration (band keratopathy), or vision loss. The...

  • Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) must do regular range-of-motion exercises to prevent contractures and to maintain joint range and flexibility. If your child is 4 years old or younger, an adult will need to move the child's joints...

  • Is this topic for you? This topic discusses using a bottle to feed formula to your baby. To learn about using a bottle to feed breast milk to your baby or to learn about breastfeeding, see the topic Breastfeeding. When is bottle-feeding with formula the best choice for your baby? If you are having a hard time...

  • If your child has severe joint damage from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), your child's doctors may recommend a total joint replacement. As you and the doctors work through this decision together, consider the following: Your child's age. Consider how old your child is. His or her bones may still...

  • What is weaning? Weaning is the term used to describe the process of switching a baby from: Breastfeeding to bottle-feeding. Breast- or bottle-feeding to a cup. Breast- or bottle-feeding to solid foods. Your baby will go through one or more of these weaning processes. All types of weaning usually work best when...

  • Insect and spider bites often cause minor swelling, redness, pain, and itching. These mild reactions are common. They may last from a few hours to a few days. Home treatment is often all that's needed to relieve the symptoms of a mild reaction to common stinging or biting spiders and insects, such as fleas, flies, and...

  • Male genital problems and injuries can occur fairly easily since the scrotum and penis are not protected by bones. Genital problems and injuries most commonly occur during: Sports or recreational activities, such as mountain biking, soccer, or baseball. Work-related tasks, such as exposure to irritating chemicals...

  • Most women have painful menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) from time to time. Menstrual cramps are one of the most common reasons for women to seek medical attention. The pain from menstrual cramps can range from mild to severe and can involve the...

  • It is not unusual to have a problem with your mouth from time to time. A mouth problem can involve your gums, lips, tongue, or inner cheeks, the roof of your mouth (soft and hard palates), under your tongue, your neck, or your teeth. Your mouth may...

  • Minor fingernail and toenail problems are common. At one time or another, almost everyone has caught a nail on something, causing it to rip, or has smashed a finger in a door, leaving blood under the nail. These kinds of injuries can be quite painful but are usually not serious. You can often relieve pain and prevent...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Childhood craniopharyngiomas are benign brain tumors found near the pituitary gland. Childhood craniopharyngiomas are rare tumors usually found near the pituitary gland (a pea-sized organ at the bottom of the brain that controls other glands) and the hypothalamus (a small cone-shaped organ connected to the pituitary...

  • Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is a plant grown in many parts of the world. It makes a resin (thick substance) that contains compounds called cannabinoids (see Question 1). By federal law, possessing Cannabis is illegal in the United States outside of approved research settings. However, a growing number of states...

  • Most nosebleeds are not usually serious and can be stopped with home treatment. Most nosebleeds occur in the front of the nose (anterior epistaxis) and involve only one nostril. Some blood may drain down the back of the nose into the throat. Many things may make a nosebleed more likely. Changes in the environment. For...

  • A mouth guard is a device used to protect the mouth and teeth. It can be made by a dentist or purchased at a store that sells athletic supplies. Your mouth guard should cover your upper or lower teeth and gums and fit so that your jaws are properly...

  • Signs of sexual abuse may not be apparent without an examination of the genital area. These signs include: Bruises, scars, chafing, or bite marks in the genital area. Discharge or bleeding from the vagina. Rectal or genital bleeding. Anal tears or dilation. Symptoms of a sexually transmitted...

  • Short-term, mild reactions to immunizations are common. Immunizations that may cause a fever include: Diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) or diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT). Babies can have a fever of up to 104 F (40 C) within 2 to 3 hours of getting the DTaP or DPT shot. Children may be fussy...

  • Small children sometimes cry to release tension when they are overtired or overstimulated. This happens when they have been held by a lot of people in a short amount of time or exposed to lots of noise, bright lights, loud voices, or music. You can...

  • A baby may be uncomfortable after feedings if he or she has swallowed air during the feeding. Burping helps get rid of air that the baby has swallowed. Burp a breastfeeding baby when you switch breasts during feeding. Burp a baby who is bottle-feeding after each 1 fl oz (30 mL) to 2 fl oz (60 mL) of fluid...

  • Feed your baby whenever he or she seems hungry (on-demand). During the first few days or weeks, breastfeedings tend to occur every 1 to 3 hours around the clock. And formula-feedings tend to occur every 3 to 4 hours around the clock. You may have to wake your sleepy newborn to feed in the first few days after birth...

  • When your child is not feeling well, he or she may not want anything to drink. This may happen if your child has a fever or diarrhea or is vomiting. It is important that your child drink enough fluids to avoid dehydration. Not drinking enough fluid can cause constipation. When the weather gets hot or when your child is...

  • A sponge bath may be given if: Your child's fever is 104 F (40 C) or higher and Acetaminophen or ibuprofen has not lowered the temperature and Your child is very uncomfortable. Give your child an appropriate dose of acetaminophen or ibuprofen before giving him or her a sponge bath. Wait 30...

  • Assess changes in your child's behavior that might mean a hearing loss. Compare present behavior with past behavior. Does your child: Listen to speech? Turn to you when you speak? Smile when spoken to? Seem to recognize your voice? Quiet his or her crying when you speak? Startle or cry at noises? Awaken to loud...

  • Assess changes in your child's behavior that might mean a hearing loss. Compare past behavior with present behavior. Does your child: Listen when spoken to? Turn or look up when you call his or her name? Respond to requests like "come here" or "want more?" Recognize words for common items like cup, shoe, or juice?

  • Assess changes in your child's behavior that might mean a hearing loss. Compare present behavior with past behavior. Also, pay attention to the quality of your child's speech. Children must be able to hear well for normal speech and language to develop. Does your child: Listen to simple stories, songs, or rhymes...

  • Assess changes in your child's behavior that might indicate a hearing loss. Compare present behavior with past behavior. Does your child: Follow two requests, such as "Get the ball and put it on the table?" Continue to notice sounds, such as a telephone ringing, television sounds, or knocking at the door?

  • Objects (foreign bodies) inserted into the ear usually do not cause significant damage. But objects that are inserted forcefully can damage the ear canal or penetrate the eardrum. Problems with objects in the ear most commonly occur in children younger than age 5 and in people who have problems with thinking and...

  • Young children are more likely than older children or adults to put small objects—such as beads, dried beans, popcorn, plastic toy pieces, foam rubber, or small batteries—up their noses. If the child doesn't tell you about it, your first clue may be a bad-smelling green or yellow discharge or blood (epistaxis) from one...

  • What are the most important things you need to know about your medicines? Make sure you know about each of the medicines you take. This includes why you take it, how to take it, what you can expect while you're taking it, and any warnings about the medicine. The information provided here is general. So be sure...

  • Covers procedure to destroy (ablate) tiny areas of heart muscle causing fast heart rate. Includes radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation. Covers use for supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT), Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, and ventricular tachycardia.

  • Discusses common skin rashes that affect those 11 and younger. Covers chickenpox, diaper rash, prickly heat, and contact dermatitis. Offers home treatment tips for fever and itching. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor.

  • Lists common causes of skin rashes in those 12 and older. Covers allergies, chronic skin problems like eczema, or contact with poisonous plants like poison oak. Covers home treatment. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor.

  • As a baby boy grows inside his mother, he develops testicles. Early in his development, his testicles are in his belly. Normally, before he is born, his testicles move down into his scrotum, the sac that hangs below the penis. When one testicle does...

  • A testicular prosthesis is a small implant with a size, shape, and consistency like a real testicle. It is usually made of a soft plastic (silicone) shell and filled with saline (salt water). The risks of a testicular prosthesis include infection...

  • Surgery to move an undescended testicle into the scrotum is called orchiopexy or orchidopexy. Surgery is usually recommended by the time the baby is 18 months old. In most cases, a pediatric surgeon or a specialist who treats urinary problems in children (pediatric urologist) performs the surgery. Orchiopexy may also...

  • Amblyopia is a vision problem that occurs in a child when one eye is not used enough for the visual system in the brain to develop properly. This leads to poor vision in the affected eye. Treatment corrects amblyopia by training the brain to use the...

  • Dust builds up throughout your home. The dust may contain substances that trigger asthma symptoms, such as wheezing or coughing, or another allergic reaction, such as the rash of atopic dermatitis or stuffy nose of allergic rhinitis. These substances are called allergens. Dust mites are another example of an allergen...

  • There are many things you can do to make living with low vision easier and safer. Low-vision rehabilitation specialists can give you detailed information and training on doing your household tasks and other activities that can be more challenging...

  • Complications of strep throat are rare but can occur, especially if strep throat is not properly treated with antibiotics. Complications can be related either to the strep infection or to the body's immune response to the infection. Although rare,...

  • Covers symptoms of seizures caused by epilepsy, other health problems, or medicine. Explains why seizures, or convulsions, occur. Covers home treatment. Includes interactive tool the help you decide when to see a doctor.

  • Aspirin (such as Bayer or Bufferin) relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation. Warning: Do not give aspirin to anyone younger than 20 unless your doctor tells you to do so because of the risk of Reye syndrome. Be sure to follow the nonprescription medicine precautions. Aspirin is a nonsteroidal...

  • Infant and child car seats save lives. By law, children must be buckled up in a car seat that is made for their weight, height, and age. Go to www.iihs.org/topics/child-safety#restraint-use to check your state's laws. A child who is not in a car seat can be seriously injured or killed during a crash or an abrupt...

  • Your skin type affects how easily you sunburn. Sun protection measures should be used to prevent sunburn. Skin types and sunburn Skin type Skin color when not exposed to sun How skin reacts to sun I White or freckled skin You sunburn very easily and are not likely to tan. II White You...

  • Ibuprofen (such as Advil or Motrin) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to relieve pain and reduce fever and inflammation. Be sure to follow these medicine precautions: Your child's over-the-counter medicine will have a "Drug Facts" label. On the label, you'll find directions for...

  • Diarrhea is described as an increase in the frequency of bowel movements or a decrease in the consistency of stools that causes the discharge of watery, loose stools. The severity of diarrhea is determined by the size and number of stools passed within a period of time. Severe diarrhea means having more...

  • What to watch for after a head injury A minor head injury is sometimes hard to distinguish from a more serious injury to the brain even when there is no visible bleeding or injury on the outside of the skull. Check for the following changes immediately after a head injury: A significant change in the child's level...

  • Discusses heat rash (prickly heat). Looks at causes and symptoms of heat rash in babies. Covers signs of infection. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • As children grow and develop, the safety of the home needs to be continually checked. Accidental injuries are one of the leading causes of death in children younger than age 5. The following questions can help you determine how your child's skills can affect his or her safety in the home: How quickly and how far can...

  • Mouth sores may make eating and talking painful. The most common mouth sores are cold sores and canker sores. In severe cases of canker sores, a doctor may prescribe a medicine to ease inflammation and pain. Other possible causes of mouth sores include: Impetigo. Symptoms may include oozing...

  • How can I prevent tetanus? You can help prevent tetanus by having all of the suggested tetanus shots ( immunizations). There are three different types of tetanus shots. Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP). This vaccine is given in a series of five shots starting at age 2 months and ending at...

  • Minor cuts on the head often bleed heavily because the face and scalp have many blood vessels close to the surface of the skin. Although this amount of bleeding may be alarming, many times the injury is not severe and the bleeding will stop with treatment you can do at home. But it is important to know the difference...

  • Comforting techniques often will calm a crying child if the crying isn't caused by pain. These techniques may help comfort a baby with colic, because colic isn't caused by pain. But if the crying doesn't seem normal or your baby seems sick, call...

  • If you participate in endurance sports, you may miss periods or stop menstruating. This is called secondary amenorrhea, and it occurs because your ovaries are not producing enough estrogen. It is believed that stress and low body fat contribute to amenorrhea. This is more likely to happen if you are younger and if your...

  • If a child has repeat ear infections (three or more ear infections in a 6-month period or four in 1 year), you may want to consider treatment to prevent future infections. One option used a lot in the past is long-term oral antibiotic treatment. There is debate within the medical community about using antibiotics on a...

  • When reviewing the following guidelines, take into account how heavy your normal menstrual flow is. Abnormal vaginal bleeding varies depending on what is normal for a particular woman. Severe vaginal bleeding means that you are soaking 1 or 2 pads or tampons in 1 or 2 hours, unless that is normal for you...

  • Almost all babies spit up, especially newborns. Spitting up happens less often after the muscles of the esophagus, the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach, become more coordinated. This process can take as little as 6 months or as long as 1 year. When spitting up becomes a problem If your baby...

  • A productive cough helps clear mucus (sputum) and foreign material from the airways. Mucus may be made in the lungs because of bronchitis, pneumonia, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Colds and allergies may produce mucus that drains down the back of the throat ( postnasal drainage). Home treatment may...

  • Dry coughs that continue after other cold symptoms clear or that occur without other symptoms may be caused by a variety of health problems. Some people start coughing when they breathe very dry, heated air. This can be caused by environmental irritation or allergies. This type of cough may be more noticeable when you...

  • Most nosebleeds occur in the front of the nose and involve only one nostril. Some blood may drain down the back of the nose into the throat. These nosebleeds typically are not serious, and you can generally treat them yourself at home. A less common but more serious type of nosebleed starts in the back of the nose and...

  • Nosebleeds that recur often are commonly caused by bleeding from the front of the nose (anterior epistaxis). Common causes of this type of nosebleed are: Blowing or picking the nose. Structural problems in the nose, either present from birth (congenital) or caused by an injury. Low humidity. Minor health problems...

  • Most people lose as much as 1 qt (1 L) to 2 qt (2 L) of fluid during 1 hour of exercise. When you are not drinking enough fluids, your muscles get tired quickly, and you may have leg cramps while walking or running. If you are an athlete, you can lose as much as 3 qt (3 L) of fluid an hour during an intense workout...

  • Many nonprescription and prescription medicines can cause nausea or vomiting. A few examples are: Antibiotics. Antidepressants. Aspirin, ibuprofen (such as Advil or Motrin), and naproxen (such as Aleve). Medicines used to treat cancer (chemotherapy). Opioid pain medicines. Vitamins and mineral supplements, such...

  • Most injuries are not caused by abuse. But bruises are often the first sign of possible abuse. Suspect physical abuse of a child or vulnerable adult when: Any injury cannot be explained or does not match the explanation. Repeated injuries occur. Explanations change for how the injury happened. You may be able to...

  • Signs of an eye infection may include: Pain in the eye. A feeling that something is in the eye (foreign body sensation). Increased sensitivity to light ( photophobia). Yellow, green, bloody, or watery discharge from the eye. Increasing redness of the eye or eyelids. A gray or white sore on the colored part of the...

  • A cough that is more noticeable when your child is lying down is usually caused by mucus running down the back of the throat (postnasal drip) from an upper respiratory infection, such as a cold, sinusitis, or allergy. A child usually has a runny or stuffy nose, may be irritable, and may have a fever. Home treatment is...

  • If your child has a barking cough: Hold your child in a calming manner. Keep your child quiet, if possible. Crying can make breathing more difficult. Try rocking or distracting your child with a book or game. Use a humidifier to add moisture to the air. Don't use a hot vaporizer. Use only water in the humidifier...

  • Disc batteries (also called button cell batteries) are found in toys, watches, hearing aids, cameras, calculators, and some remote-controlled devices. These batteries are small, usually less than 0.5 in. (1.3 cm) across, and can be easily inserted into the nose. A disc battery in the nose must be removed...

  • Parents are often the first to notice vision problems in a young child. A vision exam may be needed if your child: Is clumsy (beyond normal toddler clumsiness) and fails to notice new things around him or her. Squints when the light is not bright or...

  • The inability to move a part of your body (paralysis) as a result of a tick bite is a rare problem. Tick paralysis can be caused by several different types of ticks in North America. The symptoms of tick paralysis are caused by the venom secreted from the female tick during feeding. Symptoms usually start 4 to 7 days...

  • Many of the diseases ticks pass to humans can cause flu-like symptoms, including: Fever. Headache. Muscle aches (myalgia). A general feeling of illness (malaise). Nausea and vomiting. Diseases ticks may pass to humans include: Lyme disease. Symptoms usually start 1 to 4 weeks after the tick bite, with up to 90%...

  • Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can cause diarrhea. A few examples are: Antibiotics. Antidepressants. Antacids. Proton pump inhibitors, such as omeprazole (Prilosec) and lansoprazole (Prevacid). Medicines used to treat cancer (chemotherapy). Many antibiotics cause diarrhea. Usually the diarrhea...

  • Discusses common skin changes and possible causes. Includes info on skin cancer. Includes home treatment tips for adults and children.

  • Sunlight can help our mental outlook and help us feel healthier. For people who have arthritis, the sun's warmth can help relieve some of their physical pain. Many people also think that a suntan makes a person look young and healthy. But sunlight can be harmful to the skin, causing immediate problems as well as...

  • Looks at symptoms of sore throat caused by virus and bacteria infections and irritants. Covers common cold, mononucleosis (mono), strep throat, and flu. Covers symptoms such as swollen glands and pain. Discusses antibiotics and home treatment medicines.

  • Lists common sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea, HIV, HPV (genital warts), syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor. Covers safer sex. Offers prevention tips.

  • Many parents of a thumb-sucking infant question whether they should substitute a pacifier for the thumb. So far, research does not show that one is preferable over the other. Also, although parents can encourage a child to suck a pacifier rather than a thumb, they can't control which the child will prefer. The...

  • Daytime accidental wetting is much less common than bed-wetting. But about 1 out of 4 children who wet the bed at night also wet during the day. Knowing the cause of the wetting will help you and your child's doctor decide on the best treatment. Daytime accidental wetting is more likely than bed-wetting to develop...

  • Many studies have shown that placing a baby younger than 1 year old to sleep on his or her back is the most important thing parents can do to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Since 1992, the number of babies who sleep on their back has gone up (due mostly to the national "Back to Sleep" campaign)...

  • Discusses normal growth and development of children ages 2 to 5. Covers physical growth, language skills, toilet training, and eating and sleeping habits. Also discusses how kids think and manage their feelings. Includes info on routine medical visits.

  • If you plan to breastfeed and use a breast pump at times, research your equipment options while you are pregnant. When evaluating the different types of breast pumps, think about how often you will need to use the pump. Think about: How often you will need other caregivers to feed your baby. Whether you will return...

  • A number of things influence how much milk you produce (your milk supply). The two most important things are how often you breastfeed and how well your breast is emptied. The hormone that regulates milk production ( prolactin) is stimulated by breastfeeding. So the more frequently you feed your baby and empty your...

  • You can be reassured that your baby is eating enough and is well nourished when he or she: Shows an eager desire and wakes up frequently to breastfeed. Rhythmically sucks and swallows milk. The fronts of your baby's ears will move slightly, and you...

  • Preschool-age children develop a sense of independence by practicing skills and doing things for themselves, such as getting dressed or brushing their teeth. Children who are not allowed to perform tasks on their own get the message that they are...

  • Parents who are dependable, consistent, respectful, and responsive to their children help them to develop a sense of security. These qualities are especially important for parents of preschool children, because children at this age are gaining a basic sense of trust in themselves and in the significant people in their...

  • Preschool children are driven to explore their world. This curiosity is the basis for learning, now and throughout their lives. Children at play are little scientists. They answer for themselves basic questions about how the world works, whether...

  • By age 3, most children benefit from some form of regular social contact, such as nursery school or play groups. Playing with other children even 1 day a week provides opportunities to practice and develop important social, emotional, and language...

  • Newborns and toddlers Speech and language lessons start in the uterus, where your unborn baby hears and responds to familiar voices. After birth, your newborn learns language by listening to the basic and distinct sounds (phonemes), such as the "tr" and "cl" sounds in the English language. Reading to your newborn...

  • Gaining self-control is one of the biggest challenges that children face between the ages of 2 and 5. Children need guidance, clear limits, and patient parents during this time of behavioral and emotional struggles. They also need interaction with...

  • Covers control of asthma with asthma action plan. Includes working with doctor on a plan and medicines for symptoms and attacks. Includes use of controller medicine and peak flow meter. Reviews avoiding triggers and keeping asthma diary.

  • What is gastroesophageal reflux? Gastroesophageal reflux happens when food and stomach acid flow from the stomach back into the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. In adults, reflux is often called heartburn or acid reflux. Reflux is common in babies and...

  • If you need oxygen at home, it is important to learn how to use and take care of your equipment. This information will help you get the most from your oxygen treatment. If you have low blood oxygen levels, breathing extra oxygen can help you feel better and lead to a longer, more active life. You can travel even...

  • Guides through decision to take antiviral medicine for the flu. Explains the two types of antiviral medicines for the flu and who should take them. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Guides you through the decision to get a flu vaccine. Provides info on the flu vaccine. Explains who should and should not get a flu vaccine. Covers benefits and risks. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Children Some hearing problems can delay your child's speech and language development. Early screening for hearing loss can help prevent many learning, social, and emotional problems that can be related to speech and language development. Call your doctor if at any time you suspect your child has a hearing problem...

  • Programs to screen for lead poisoning focus on finding children or adults who are likely to be exposed to lead. These programs, developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), advise local and state agencies to determine which geographic areas are the most likely to be at risk for lead exposure...

  • Ticks are small spiderlike animals (arachnids) that bite to fasten themselves onto the skin and feed on blood. Ticks live in the fur and feathers of many birds and animals. Tick bites occur most often during early spring to late summer and in areas where there are many wild animals and birds. Most ticks don't carry...

  • Here are some ways you can help comfort your child who has a respiratory illness (such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection or a cold): Ask your doctor if your child can take acetaminophen or ibuprofen to help relieve fever (if present). Be safe with medicines. Read and follow all instructions on the...

  • If the herpes simplex virus (HSV) invades a part of the body other than the genital area, it may cause disease in that part of the body. In general, complications are rare. And they usually occur with the first-time (primary) genital herpes outbreak. Some of these complications include: Meningitis, an infection of the...

  • Breast milk or formula is the only food babies need for the first 6 months of life, at which point solid foods can be gradually introduced. Ideally, your baby will be fed only breast milk until 6 months of age. Some babies may be ready for solid foods at 4 or 5 months. Ask your doctor when you can start feeding your...

  • You can help create and strengthen the emotional bond with your baby by: Making frequent eye contact, such as during feeding times. Young babies love to look at your face and eyes. Cuddling your baby in the crook of your arm is about the perfect...

  • When you cuddle, talk to, and play with your baby, you build an emotional bond. You also help stimulate his or her learning and cognitive development. Show your baby new and interesting things. For instance, carry your baby around the room and show...

  • Guides through decision to use antibiotics for a child's ear infection. Covers symptoms of an ear infection. Offers home treatment tips. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision. This topic is only appropriate for children 6 months and older.

  • What kinds of development occur between ages 6 and 10? Children ages 6 to 10 are more independent and physically active than they were in the preschool years. They also are more involved with friends and are learning to think in more complex ways. Progress in the major areas of development—physical, intellectual...

  • Growth between the ages of 6 and 10 usually occurs in spurts but progresses at an overall steady pace. Most children gain an average of 7 lb (3 kg) and 2.5 in. (6 cm) each year. The loss of baby teeth and their replacement by permanent teeth is one of the most dramatic signs of physical development for this age...

  • Around age 6, children begin to change the way they think about the world. They leave behind the preschooler's egocentric thinking and begin developing more mature ways of understanding. A typical first-grader is able to perform simple addition and subtraction, and he or she usually begins to read and write sentences...

  • The home remains a child's most important sphere of influence during the early school years. It also becomes the base from which children explore relationships outside of the home. A child's increasing independence is tested, for example, by the first night spent away from home. The child returns home with a sense of...

  • While most children have a large vocabulary—about 13,000 words—at age 6, they have limited ability to understand complicated language structures. From ages 6 to 10, children gradually begin to think in more complex ways. This growth helps them understand and use the nuances and subtleties of language. Children...

  • Many children ages 6 to 10, if left to their own devices, would eat pizza 3 times a day, 7 days a week, or play video games for hours at a time. That is because they have not developed control over their drives and appetites, which can include...

  • Your child may seem anxious about everyday occurrences. School-age children usually are still dealing with a number of fears that first developed during their early childhood, such as fear of ghosts, of the dark, or even of dying. Every child's...

  • Most school-age children feel driven to "make it" in the world away from home. Making friends and being accepted become top priorities. School is a testing ground where children evaluate, accept, and reject each other daily. At times, parents cringe at the degree to which children try to fit in and are often saddened...

  • Children between ages 6 and 10 years make major gains in muscle strength and coordination. Boys and girls are able to compete quite evenly at sports, because muscle development and coordination occur at about the same times for both sexes. Team sports are a good way for children to build both motor skills and...

  • As a parent, you are the ideal teacher to help your child learn about sex. Open communication about sexuality helps your child understand his or her feelings and encourages a positive attitude toward a natural process. Your explanations should be honest and simple. Because children's cognitive growth is ongoing, a...

  • Every day, children ages 6 to 10 may face new challenges at home with their families and at school with their friends and teachers. At the end of one day, they may feel good about themselves. They have fun with their friends, have done well at...

  • To build healthy self-esteem, all children need to feel that they can do at least one thing very well. Many times, though, a child's special talent is overlooked because it's not an area that is recognized at school or elsewhere. Parents can...

  • Egocentric thinking is the normal tendency for a young child to see everything that happens as it relates to him- or herself. This is not selfishness. Young children are unable to understand different points of view. For example, a preschool child...

  • In the first month, your doctor will pay close attention to your baby's increasing weight, length, and head circumference, which is measured around the largest point of the head, usually starting at a point on the forehead. The average birth weight for babies is around 7.5 lb (3.5 kg), although between 5.5 lb...

  • Cognition is the ability to think, learn, and remember. Your baby is born with 100 billion brain cells ( neurons). To function at their full potential, these cells must form connections (synapses) with each other. These connections carry messages between the cells in the brain and from the brain to the body. During a...

  • Speech and language lessons start in the uterus, where your developing baby hears and responds to familiar voices. Indeed, soon after birth, your baby prefers and responds more to the mother's voice than to any other. Also, your newborn can recognize whether sounds are part of his or her native language. Your newborn...

  • Newborn senses Your newborn is equipped with all five senses, although some are more developed than others. Touch. Your newborn's sense of touch is highly developed, particularly around the mouth, where he or she is sensitive to temperature, pressure, and pain. Newborns like gentle handling and to...

  • Your newborn immediately starts to communicate with you. Newborns need and, in their own way, ask for social interaction with others. They communicate by moving their arms and legs and directing their gaze toward a familiar voice. Their eyes and face brighten as they track parents' movements and scan their faces. When...

  • To help establish and maintain a predictable daily schedule, respond to your baby's needs and try to reinforce your baby's natural habits. Eating From birth, babies follow their internal hunger and fullness cues. They eat when they're hungry and stop eating when they're full. Experts agree that newborns should be fed...

  • Babies cry to communicate that they are hungry, wet, tired, too warm, too cold, lonely, or otherwise uncomfortable. When you respond promptly to these cries, you help your baby feel confident and safe. After your baby's need is met, the crying usually stops. The more consistently you respond to your baby when he or she...

  • You naturally develop an emotional bond with your baby simply by spending time together, being physically close, and responding to his or her cues. Although the bond does not require special planning, keep the following in mind: Respond to your newborn's crying. Newborn babies cannot act with forethought, so they are...

  • When you encourage emotional bonding with your baby by cuddling, talking, and playing with him or her, you also stimulate brain development and communication. To further promote learning and communication: Learn your newborn's cues and recognize when he or she is most alert and receptive. Newborn communication can be...

  • Preparing for a newborn Be prepared for a variety of reactions from your older child when a newborn joins your family. It is normal for an older child to feel jealous and displaced when you have another baby. The older sibling may go back to thumb-sucking, abandon potty training, or display other similar behaviors...

  • Discusses causes and symptoms of food allergies. Covers what increases risk. Discusses treatment options, including medicine choices. Offers home care and prevention tips. Covers when to call a doctor.

  • What kinds of growth and development occur during ages 12 to 24 months? Your child's rapid brain development between the ages of 12 and 24 months causes amazing changes to happen—such as talking, walking, and remembering—as he or she enters the toddler years. The changes that happen in this period are often...

  • Separation protest (also called separation anxiety) usually starts around 9 months of age, peaks near 15 months of age, and starts to fade sometime before the third birthday. The intensity and duration of separation protest is affected by your...

  • Toddlers may throw fits, act selfishly, and rarely mind. This behavior often develops out of frustration from not being able to communicate, master skills, and be as independent as they want to be. Assertiveness and irritability are normal behaviors for toddlers. Toddlers are actively absorbing and exploring the world...

  • The typical toddler is programmed to crawl, walk, run, climb, and seek out new experiences. Toddlers need stimulation to improve their motor and sensory skills. You can foster your toddler's strength and coordination: Play and interact with your toddler. Playing, dancing, marching, and doing other simple...

  • Toddlers are notoriously picky eaters. They may only eat a few foods, then abruptly refuse them. Toddlers also have rapidly changing appetites. Although toddlers grow steadily throughout their second year, their growth rates are less dramatic than during the first year, which often is reflected in how much they eat...

  • Is it safe for you to have sex? If you have an arrhythmia and your doctor says that it's okay for you to do moderate activity, like brisk walking, then it's probably safe for you to have sex. If you have any concerns, ask your doctor. Your doctor can check the health of your heart and help you know if it's safe...

  • Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a heart rhythm problem that causes a very fast heart rate. WPW is one type of supraventricular tachycardia called atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT). With WPW, an extra electrical pathway links the upper chambers (atria) and lower chambers (ventricles) of the...

  • What is dyslexia? Dyslexia is a learning disability that makes it hard to read, write, and spell. It occurs because the brain jumbles or mixes up letters and words. Children with dyslexia often have a poor memory of spoken and written words. Having dyslexia does not mean that your or your child's ability to learn is...

  • How do teenagers grow and develop during ages 15 to 18? The ages from 15 to 18 are an exciting time of life. But these years can be challenging for teens and their parents. Emotions can change quickly as teens learn to deal with school, their friends, and adult expectations. Teen self-esteem is affected by success...

  • How do children grow and develop between ages 11 and 14? The ages 11 through 14 years are often referred to as early adolescence. These years are an exciting time of many varied and rapid changes. Your child grows taller and stronger and also starts to feel and think in more mature ways. You may feel amazed as you...

  • Dyslexia may occur with other learning or emotional problems. Some of the conditions associated with dyslexia may be the result of the way the child's brain was formed or how it functions. Some of the emotional problems that a child with dyslexia can have are due to frustrations and failures at school and home. But keep...

  • Adolescence is a time of rapid growth in height and weight and of physical changes throughout the body. Most of these changes occur near the time of puberty, which in the United States and Canada usually begins for girls between the ages of 9 and 11, and for most boys between the ages of 9½ and 13. Breast buds—slight...

  • Adolescents typically think in concrete ways. This means that they have difficulty with abstract and symbolic concepts. Their thinking tends to be focused on the present. They are just starting to be able to gather information from experience, analyze information, and make critical decisions about future choices and...

  • Independence, individuality, identity, and self-esteem are buzzwords for early teen emotional and social development. Elementary school-age children have strong ties to their families and want to please their parents. The years 11 through 14 are a transition between childhood and adulthood. Appropriately, adolescents...

  • Before the adolescent growth spurt, the strength of boys and girls is about the same. But afterward, males most often have the advantage. During these years of rapid physical growth, adolescents may be somewhat awkward or clumsy as they get used to longer limbs and bigger bodies. Their brains need time to adjust to the...

  • Adolescent thinking tends to be focused on the present. But adolescents and teens are rapidly learning new skills related to complex reasoning, inductive and deductive reasoning, sensitivity toward others, flexibility, and problem solving. Remind yourself that it is normal for adolescents to have a sense of being...

  • The teen years can be a difficult time for both your teen and you. But, you can also experience times of pride, laughter, and closeness. The world changes so quickly that you may not recognize the problems your teen may face. Some issues teens face may be choices that involve alcohol and drugs, high-risk sexual...

  • Puberty begins with hormonal shifts that trigger the development of male and female sex characteristics. In general, puberty usually starts for girls between the ages of 9 and 11, and for most boys between the ages of 9½ and 13 years. The exact age at which puberty starts varies widely among individuals. Having an...

  • Remember the knot in your stomach the week before you began junior high as you imagined losing your way to classes, a mass of new faces, lots of different and probably scary teachers, and mountains of homework? Those fears live in the hearts and minds of adolescents and teens. While most adolescents make the adjustment...

  • Getting enough sleep and rest is important during the teen years. Teens need more sleep than younger children, because rapid physical growth and activity during the teen years can cause fatigue. Many teenagers sleep late whenever possible and often have problems getting up in the morning. Teenagers' biological clocks...

  • By the time a child starts school, his or her distinct temperament becomes more apparent. Every child has a unique way of feeling, thinking, and interacting with others. Some children are shy, while others are outgoing. Some are active, while others are calm. Some are fretful, while others are easygoing. Each family is...

  • By age 15, most girls have had their first menstrual period and have completed the rapid growth spurt that usually occurs during puberty. After the first period, teenage girls grow 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) to 3 in. (7.6 cm) on average. Other early changes of puberty, such as the growth of pubic hair and breasts, have also...

  • By age 16, most teens are developing the ability to think abstractly, deal with several concepts at the same time, and imagine the future consequences of their actions. This type of thinking in a logical sequence continues to develop into adulthood. Also by age 16, teens can learn to process more complex problems, to...

  • Older teens may seem mature at times, but they often will still have periods of childish behavior. Those who have not yet established a personal identity and sense of independence may try defining themselves through rebellious or difficult behavior. Teens learn about themselves through expanding their relationships...

  • Teens want an answer to the eternal question, "Who am I?" Part of the answer lies in their sexual self. The teen years can be a confusing time. Hormones, cultural and peer pressures, and fear of being different can cause many teens to question themselves in many areas, including their sexual orientation and gender...

  • Most parents are nervous about their teenager driving a car. As a parent, you are right in your concern. Most teens learn to drive by taking driver's education classes. While teens are learning to drive, they need to get as much experience as possible with another adult in the car. Not all parents have the temperament...

  • Teens may start working during the high school years, often starting with a summer job. Work experience can offer many valuable lessons for teens and gives them a sense of independence and accomplishment. They also develop skills they will need to become successful in the adult workforce, such as how to balance time...

  • Offers tips on talking with your child about sex. Addresses family values. Covers getting conversations started. Covers topics such as using condoms and other forms of birth control to avoid pregnancy and STIs. Also covers sexual abuse and date rape.

  • Parenting a teenager can be both challenging and rewarding. Many teens have conflicting feelings about growing up and aren't yet able to gracefully manage these emotions. They can be inconsistent with their affections, argumentative, and at times even hurtful. As your teen struggles with becoming independent, it is...

  • To a baby's eyes, your home is one big playground. He or she sees a lot of things to crawl under, climb on top of, pull down, touch, taste, and smell. It can be fun to watch your baby discover new things as he or she learns to crawl and walk. But it can also be scary to think about what your baby might get into around...

  • When can I have sex again? Sex is part of a healthy life and part of your quality of life. It is safe for most people after they have had a heart attack. After a heart attack, you can resume sexual activity when you are healthy and feel ready for it. You could be ready if you can do mild or moderate activity...

  • Children with sensory processing disorder have difficulty processing information from the senses (touch, movement, smell, taste, vision, and hearing) and responding appropriately to that information. These children typically have one or more senses...

  • Nonverbal learning disorder is a learning disorder that has many traits commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder. Like those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), children with nonverbal learning disorder usually start to talk around 2 years...

  • Discusses urinary tract infection in children 12 years and younger. Covers symptoms and how problems might be diagnosed with urinalysis or a urine culture. Looks at treatment with antibiotics. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Uses your child's weight and height to compare your child's size to that of other boys or girls of the same age. Covers what the results mean and next steps.

  • The rules of our family are listed below. All members of the family are able and agree to follow the rules. If someone breaks a family rule, a consequence will be enforced. Family rule Consequences 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. Current as of: ...

  • Consequences result from our actions. Natural consequences are the experiences that naturally follow a choice or behavior. For example, going out in cold weather without a coat naturally leads to feeling cold. Logical consequences are consequences chosen to follow behaviors that violate the...

  • Family meetings are regularly scheduled times when family members get together to share feelings, discuss concerns, and solve problems. Since all members participate, these meetings help build cooperation and responsibility. Family meetings help...

  • Use this form to record information about your child's treatment plan for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Review the plan with your doctor often. Together you can keep the plan up to date. My child's main symptom of ADHD is...

  • You may want to give the teacher a copy of your child's treatment plan to keep with this school plan. Adapt this form to fit your child's needs. Keep a copy of the completed form for your records and give a copy to your child's teachers. Name:...

  • Discusses teen use of alcohol and other harmful or illegal substances. Covers the effects and consequences substance use has on a teen's life, including physical and emotional health. Includes info on how to recognize and deal with teen substance use.

  • To be diagnosed with diabetes, you must meet one of the following criteria: Have symptoms of diabetes (increased thirst, increased urination, and unexplained weight loss) and a blood sugar level equal to or greater than 200 milligrams per...

  • The following strategies may help decrease your child's discomfort related to immunizations. Your baby is less likely to be uncomfortable or upset after an immunization if he or she is not hungry or tired. See that your baby has a good nap 2 to 4...

  • Inverted nipples fold inward instead of pointing out. Most women with inverted nipples will still be able to breastfeed. If the baby is having a hard time latching on to the breast, ask your doctor, midwife, or lactation consultant for help. To find...

  • There are many ways to help your baby who is teething. You can help relieve discomfort by offering your baby safe objects to chew or suck on. A wide variety of teethers and toys are made of nontoxic materials and are specially designed for teething...

  • Infant formulas take two times longer for a baby to digest than breast milk. The slower digestion of infant formula can affect: Feeding frequency. Babies who take infant formula usually want to feed less often than babies who are breastfeeding....

  • Check with your local water supplier to find out if your tap water is safe to use for your baby's formula. If your water is not safe or if you are not sure, you may use bottled water. If you are not sure if your water is safe, you can use bottled...

  • Bottles Small, 4 fl oz (120 mL) bottles are a good size for newborns. As your baby starts to take more formula during a feeding, you will likely want to have bigger 8 fl oz (240 mL) bottles on hand. Bottles are made of glass or plastic. Glass bottles can be cleaned by boiling them. Plastic cannot be...

  • You may choose to breastfeed and give infant formula for some of your baby's feedings. Supplementing breast milk with formula may decrease your supply of breast milk. But it will not stop your breast milk production. It is best to wait until your...

  • Self-esteem is a person's core belief about himself or herself. A person's self-esteem is reflected in his or her actions, both in how as well as what he or she does. Although self-esteem varies from time to time, the pattern usually leans toward a healthy or unhealthy view of self. With healthy self-esteem, a person is...

  • Covers helping a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder succeed in school. Discusses working with teachers and other school personnel. Also covers helping your child control symptoms. Includes interactive test to measure what you've learned.

  • One of the most difficult things about parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is getting your child to do what you ask. Daily routines, such as getting ready for school or bed and getting homework done, can become...

  • Putting a plan for avoiding alcohol and substance use in writing will help your teen make good decisions in the future. Using the example below, have your teen help you write the contract. Teens feel more responsible for their actions when they are...

  • A woman who drinks alcohol while she is pregnant may harm her developing baby (fetus). Alcohol can pass from the mother's blood into the baby's blood. It can damage and affect the growth of the baby's cells. Brain and spinal cord cells are most...

  • When a child has diarrhea or is vomiting, it is important to replace the fluids he or she is losing. Give your child small sips of water. Let your child drink as much as he or she wants. Ask your doctor if your child needs an oral rehydration solution (ORS) like Pedialyte or Infalyte. Oral rehydration solutions contain...

  • What is child abuse and neglect? If you want to save this information but don't think it is safe to take it home, see if a trusted friend can keep it for you. Plan ahead. Know who you can call for help, and memorize the phone number. Be careful online too. Your online activity may be seen by others. Do not use...

  • Corporal punishment is the intentional use of physical force to cause bodily pain or discomfort as a penalty for unacceptable behavior. Corporal punishment includes any action that produces discomfort, such as: Spanking, hitting, slapping, pinching, ear pulling, jabbing, shoving, or choking. Forcing a...

  • What is failure to thrive? Failure to thrive is a term used to describe a child who seems to be gaining weight or height more slowly than other children of his or her age and sex. A baby who has failed to thrive may seem slow to develop physical skills, such as rolling over, standing, and walking. Slow growth also...

  • If you want to save this information but don't think it is safe to take it home, see if a trusted friend can keep it for you. Plan ahead. Know who you can call for help, and memorize the phone number. Be careful online too. Your online activity may...

  • Swallowing air may cause bloating, burping, gas, and abdominal pain. Swallowed air that is not released by burping passes through the digestive tract and is released as gas (flatus). Babies often swallow air during feeding. It is important to burp your baby during and after feeding. Swallowed air may cause a baby to be...

  • What is cradle cap? Cradle cap is an oily, yellow scaling or crusting on a baby's scalp. It is common in babies and is easily treated. Cradle cap is not a part of any illness and does not imply that a baby is not being well cared for. What causes cradle cap? Cradle cap is the normal buildup of sticky skin oils...

  • By the age of 4, your child may tell you he or she is having trouble hearing or understanding others. You can ask your child questions about his or her hearing. You can also assess changes in your child's behavior that might mean a hearing loss. Compare present behavior with past behavior. Does your child: Follow...

  • Most women have an increased urge to urinate during pregnancy. This is a normal body response related to hormone changes that occur during pregnancy and to physical pressure on the bladder. Bladder infections are more common during pregnancy. When a bladder infection develops during pregnancy, you may have discomfort...

  • It is not unusual to develop a viral illness that causes a fever during pregnancy or after your delivery. Mild fevers that last only a short time usually are not a concern. An ongoing fever that does not get better with home treatment, such as taking acetaminophen, or that does not improve after several days may mean...

  • If you want to save this information but don't think it is safe to take it home, see if a trusted friend can keep it for you. Plan ahead. Know who you can call for help, and memorize the phone number. Be careful online too. Your online activity may be seen by others. Do not use your personal computer or device to read...

  • For a while after childbirth, don't be surprised if you have little interest in sex. Physical recovery, exhaustion, and hormonal changes often affect sexuality after childbirth. Each woman's experience is different. Together, you and your partner can connect emotionally and physically by knowing ahead of time what...

  • Bruxism is the unconscious act of grinding the teeth. This usually occurs at night during sleep. Bruxism has been observed in people of all ages, including young children. It is a contributing factor in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Like daytime teeth clenching, bruxism is often considered to be stress-related...

  • Pain is a long-lasting problem for people who have sickle cell disease. Bouts of severe pain can last for hours to days and are difficult to treat. Pain can be exhausting for caregivers as well as for the person in pain. A pain management plan can help a person cope with chronic pain and with pain caused by a sickle...

  • During a blood transfusion, a person (the recipient) receives healthy blood from another person (the donor). The donated blood is carefully screened for diseases before it is used. Before receiving a blood transfusion, the recipient's blood is analyzed closely (using blood type) to make sure the donor blood is a close...

  • Some people inherit one sickle cell gene and one other defective hemoglobin gene, resulting in various types of sickling disorders. These disorders range from mild to severe. Sickle cell disease (hemoglobin SS disease) occurs when both genes produce hemoglobin S. This person typically has...

  • Is this topic for you? This topic is for people who want to know what to expect when a baby is born early. For information about early labor, its causes, and its treatment, see the topic Preterm Labor. What is premature birth? Pregnancy normally lasts about 40 weeks. A baby born 3 or more weeks early is premature...

  • After your infant is discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), you may need to take special precautions for car travel. In most cases the safest way for a healthy premature infant to travel is in a car seat. But some premature infants...

  • If your premature infant was born before the gestational age of 32 to 34 weeks, he or she cannot feed by mouth. This is because of: Poor coordination (or lack) of sucking, swallowing, and gag reflex. Weakness of both the oral and stomach muscles. Small stomach capacity. Until your infant becomes stronger and more...

  • Routine immunizations Starting at 2 months after birth, premature infants need all the recommended immunizations that full-term infants get. The one immunization that your preemie may not get on schedule is the hepatitis B vaccine, which is usually given at birth. This vaccine doesn't work as well in very small...

  • What is mercury? Mercury is a metal found naturally in the environment. Human activities, such as farming, burning coal, and using mercury in manufacturing, increase the mercury cycling through the air, water, and soil. In water, mercury changes its form and becomes methylmercury. Fish absorb this mercury. When you...

  • Mastitis usually happens in nursing mothers when bacteria enter the breast through a cracked or sore nipple. This can cause an infection. Mastitis usually starts as a painful area in one breast. It may be red or warm to the touch, or both. Fever, chills, and body aches usually occur too. Good breastfeeding...

  • Covers good skin care as an essential part of controlling the itch and rash of atopic dermatitis. Looks at what atopic dermatitis is. Explains why skin care is important. Gives tips on keeping your skin hydrated and avoiding irritants.

  • Covers eating a variety of foods so that your child gets the nutrients he or she needs for normal growth. Looks at how much food is good for your child and how you can help your child eat well and be healthy. Explains how to help a child who is overweight.

  • From birth, infants follow their internal hunger and fullness cues. They eat when they're hungry and stop eating when they're full. Experts agree that newborns should be fed on demand. This means that you breast- or bottle-feed your infant whenever he or she shows signs of hunger, rather than setting a strict schedule...

  • What is a menstrual cycle? The menstrual cycle is the series of changes a woman's body goes through to prepare for a pregnancy. About once a month, the uterus grows a new lining (endometrium) to get ready for a fertilized egg. When there is no fertilized egg to start a pregnancy, the uterus sheds its lining. This is...

  • What is teen substance use? Many teens try alcohol, tobacco, or drugs. Some teens try these substances only a few times and stop. Others can't control their urges or cravings for them. This is substance use disorder. Moderate to severe substance use disorder is sometimes called addiction. Teens may try a number of...

  • Discusses basic care of your newborn's umbilical cord stump. Covers cleaning umbilical cord stump and around the navel (belly button) after the stump has fallen off. Discusses signs of infection and when to call your baby's doctor.

  • What is congenital torticollis? Torticollis, also known as "wryneck," is a condition in which your baby's head is tilted. The chin points to one shoulder, while the head tilts toward the opposite shoulder. Treatment is necessary to prevent your baby's face and skull from growing unevenly and to prevent limited motion...

  • What is a slipped capital femoral epiphysis? A slipped capital femoral epiphysis occurs when the upper end of the thigh bone (femur) slips at the area where the bone is growing (growth plate or physis) and does not fit in the hip socket correctly. The condition is most common in young teenagers. It's more common in...

  • What is roseola? Roseola (roseola infantum) is a mild illness caused by a virus. It is generally harmless and is most common in children 6 months to 2 years of age. It is rare after age 4. What causes roseola? Roseola is caused by two common viruses. The viruses belong to the family of herpes viruses...

  • Briefly looks at impetigo, a common bacterial skin infection in children. Covers causes and symptoms. Covers treatment with antibiotics. Explains that it is contagious. Offers prevention tips.

  • What is a peanut allergy? A peanut allergy is a reaction that occurs when your body mistakenly identifies peanuts as harmful substances. When you eat peanuts or food containing peanuts, your immune system —the body's natural defense system that fights infections and diseases—overreacts and can cause a serious, even...

  • Many infants and young children calm themselves by sucking their thumbs. While most children will stop on their own between ages 3 and 6, some continue past the age of 4 or 5. Prolonged thumb-sucking can lead to serious dental and speech problems. By using lots of love, encouragement, and a few simple steps, you can...

  • What is a concussion? A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that is caused by a blow to the head or body, a fall, or another injury that jars or shakes the brain inside the skull. Although there may be cuts or bruises on the head or face, there may be no other visible signs of a brain injury. You...

  • What is radial head subluxation? Radial head subluxation means that the radius, one of two long bones in the lower arm (forearm), has pulled away from its normal position. The ligament that supports the radial bone then slips into the elbow joint. When this happens, the radial bone can't move back into its normal...

  • Probiotics are bacteria that help keep the natural balance of organisms (microflora) in the intestines. The normal human digestive tract contains about 400 types of probiotic bacteria that reduce the growth of harmful bacteria and promote a healthy...

  • Discusses tetanus, also called lockjaw. Looks at cause by bacteria infection that makes a poison that causes severe muscle spasms. Looks at how bacteria enter the body through wound or cut. Covers vaccine shots (immunizations) to prevent tetanus.

  • Most ticks do not carry diseases, and most tick bites do not cause serious health problems. But it is important to avoid and check for ticks, and to remove a tick as soon as you find it. Removing the tick completely may help you avoid diseases such...

  • Home treatment may be all that is needed to treat mild nausea caused by cancer or the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. If you are having chemotherapy, your doctor can give you medicines to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting. Be sure to tell your doctor if you continue to have problems after your...

  • Home treatment may be all that is needed to treat diarrhea caused by cancer or the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Be sure to follow any instructions and take any medicines your doctor has given you to treat diarrhea. Check with your doctor before using any nonprescription medicines for your diarrhea...

  • How you feel about your body (your body image) may change when you have cancer. It is common to feel angry, frustrated, or disappointed after cancer surgery or during treatment for cancer. And it may be hard to adjust. Changes that may affect a person's body image include: Losing a breast because of breast cancer...

  • Violence causes more injury and death in children, teenagers, and young adults than infectious disease, cancer, or birth defects. There is no single explanation for the violence caused by youth. Many different things cause violent behavior in children. The more these things are present in a child's life, the more...

  • Because children and teenagers are more flexible, back pain is not as common in this age group as it is in adults. Back pain in a child that occurs immediately after an injury or an athletic event should be checked by a doctor. Back pain in children and teens may also be caused by an overuse injury. Children or their...

  • Covers possible effects of sun exposure, including sunburn and skin cancer. Explains UVA and UVB rays. Offers tips for children and adults on how much time to spend in the sun. Discusses protective clothing and sunscreen protection, including proper SPF.

  • Anyone who has a head injury during a sporting event needs to immediately stop all activity and not return to play that day. Being active again before the brain returns to normal functioning increases the person's risk of having a more serious brain injury. Every person involved in a sporting event (every coach...

  • Briefly discusses scarlet fever, a term used for strep throat with a rash. Covers symptoms like red rash on chest, on abdomen, and in skin folds. Covers how it is treated. Also covers complications.

  • Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can affect the menstrual cycle. A few examples are: Aspirin and other medicines (called blood thinners) that prevent blood clots. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (for example, Advil or Motrin) and naproxen (for example, Aleve). Hormonal...

  • What is a hydrocele? A hydrocele is a painless buildup of watery fluid around one or both testicles that causes the scrotum or groin area to swell. This swelling may be unsightly and uncomfortable, but it usually is not painful and generally is not dangerous. Although hydroceles are common in newborns, they can also...

  • Hypospadias is a male birth defect in which the opening of the tube that carries urine from the body (urethra) develops abnormally, usually on the underside of the penis. The opening can occur anywhere from just below the end of the penis to the...

  • What is vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)? Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the backward flow of urine from the bladder into the kidneys. Normally, urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The muscles of the bladder and ureters, along with the pressure of urine in the bladder, prevent urine from...

  • The menstrual cycle is the series of changes a woman's body goes through to prepare for a possible pregnancy. Most girls start having periods between the ages of 11 and 15. A girl who has not had her first period by age 15 has what is called primary amenorrhea. This is different from infrequent or light menstrual...

  • Crying is a normal part of your child's life. Stay as calm as possible during crying episodes. There are many different ways to approach your child's crying, and over time you will understand your child's needs and know how to care for him or her. A child's crying can be very upsetting, especially when you are...

  • Asbestos is a substance that was used in building materials. The substance can enter the body by being inhaled or swallowed. The substance attaches to the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Contact with asbestos over time has been...

  • High-risk sexual behavior puts people at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unplanned pregnancy, and being in a sexual relationship before being mature enough to know what makes a healthy relationship. Teens and young adults are at higher risk than adults. Examples of high-risk sexual behavior include...

  • Many types of protective eyewear are available. Lenses in the eyewear come in a variety of thicknesses. The thickness of lenses you need to wear depend on your activities and any eye conditions you have. The lenses in these glasses or goggles should be made from polycarbonate. These lenses can be prescription or...

  • Chemical pinkeye (conjunctivitis) or toxic pinkeye is caused by getting smoke, liquids, fumes, or chemicals in the eye. Flushing the eye with running water must be done immediately to remove the toxic chemical or liquid. Mild pinkeye can be caused by the chlorine in swimming pools. Most people don't need treatment...

  • Physical sunscreens, such as zinc oxide, are usually thick white or colored cream. They prevent the skin from being exposed to the sun's ultraviolet rays. They are useful for high-risk areas such as the nose, lips, and shoulders. It's safest to keep babies younger than 6 months out of the sun. Use sunscreens on children...

  • Some medicines may cause your skin to sunburn more easily. Medicines used for treatment on the skin (topical) or for the whole body (systemic) can cause two types of reactions: Phototoxicity. Medicines react with proteins in the skin and sunlight and cause a more severe sunburn reaction with increased...

  • The sunlight that reaches the earth has ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B (UVA and UVB) rays. These ultraviolet rays are the main causes of damage to the skin from the sun. UVA and UVB rays affect the skin's sensitivity to sun exposure in different ways. UVA: Can pass through window glass. Is not affected by a change...

  • There is no evidence-based research to support the safety and effectiveness of the following home treatment measures, but they may help relieve your burn symptoms. Soak a washcloth in water to make a cool compress. Add a handful of oatmeal (ground to a powder) to your bath. Or you can try an oatmeal bath product...

  • You can take a temperature using the mouth (oral), anus (rectal), armpit (axillary), or ear (tympanic). But the temperature readings vary depending on which one you use, and you need an accurate body temperature to determine if a fever is present. Medical research hasn't determined an exact correlation between...

  • Most women are able to become pregnant from puberty, when their menstrual cycles begin, until menopause, when their cycles stop. A pregnancy starts with fertilization, when a woman's egg joins with a man's sperm. Fertilization usually takes place in a fallopian tube that links an ovary to the uterus. If the fertilized...

  • Nail-biting (onychophagia) is a common stress-relieving habit. You may bite your nails in times of stress or excitement, or in times of boredom or inactivity. It can also be a learned behavior from family members. Nail-biting is the most common of the typical "nervous habits," which include thumb-sucking, nose-picking...

  • There are many types of congenital heart defects. If the defect lowers the amount of oxygen in the body, it is called cyanotic. If the defect doesn't affect oxygen in the body, it is called acyanotic. What are cyanotic heart defects? Cyanotic heart...

  • Adults with congenital heart defects can live long, full, and active lives. There are many things you can do to stay healthy and live well. These include having a heart-healthy lifestyle, preventing infections, and getting regular checkups. You...

  • A cataract is a painless, cloudy area in the lens of the eye that blocks the passage of light to the retina, the nerve layer at the back of the eye, usually causing vision problems. Cataracts are rare in babies and children. But a child may be born...

  • Discusses shots of EDTA into bloodstream to remove heavy metals or minerals from the body. Also discusses its use to treat atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Covers safety.

  • Looks at depression in children and teens. Covers symptoms like anxiety, headaches, sleep problems, and lack of energy. Discusses treatment with therapy and medicines. Covers warning signs of suicide.

  • Certain medical or mental disorders can produce symptoms similar to depression. Before depression is diagnosed, it may be necessary to rule out other causes of the symptoms that your child or teen may be experiencing. These other disorders may be...

  • Discusses radon, a tasteless and odorless cancer-causing gas. Covers how to prevent exposure to radon gas. Covers health risks. Discusses radon test kits and what results mean. Offers telephone and website contact info for EPA radon help.

  • Discusses emotional and intellectual stages of life from childhood to your retirement years. Covers stages of the human life cycle, including independence and adulthood, coupling, parenting, and retirement.

  • What is hand-foot-and-mouth disease? Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is an illness that causes sores or blisters in or on the mouth and on the hands, feet, and sometimes the buttocks and legs. They may be painful. The illness usually doesn't last more than a week or so. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is common in children but...

  • It is normal for your growing child to be moody or somewhat irritable as he or she moves through adolescence. But symptoms of prolonged sadness or irritability and a loss of pleasure in activities the child enjoyed before can point to depression....

  • Discusses symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and teens. Covers frequent and extreme mood swings ranging from being overly energetic to depression. Covers treatment with counseling and medicines.

  • Several conditions regularly occur along with bipolar disorder that at first may share some of the same features. Conditions that might be present along with bipolar disorder in children and adolescents include: Attention deficit hyperactivity...

  • Bipolar disorder in children and teens and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are similar. It is possible for a child to have both conditions. But certain symptoms help distinguish one from the other: Comparing symptoms of bipolar disorder and ADHD Symptoms of bipolar disorder Symptoms of ADHD...

  • Even with treatment, symptoms of bipolar disorder can be difficult to manage and can make school challenging. Regular and honest communication with your child and his or her teachers, guidance counselors, coaches, and school administrators can be the most important way to help your child succeed. Education...

  • What is iron toxicity? Iron toxicity occurs when the body has too much iron. The most common cause of iron toxicity is accidental overdose of iron pills. How can you prevent it? In children Keep iron pills and all medicines out of the reach of children. Iron pills often attract children because they look like candy...

  • Guides you through how to control itching when you or your child has chickenpox (varicella) rash. Includes home treatment with baths, over-the-counter medicines, and lotions. Covers avoiding scratching to prevent infection and scarring.

  • Being a parent of a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is full of challenges and frustrations. This can lead to exhaustion. Taking good physical and emotional care of yourself will help provide you with needed energy....

  • It is important to learn about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the specific ways your child is affected. Knowledge about the condition will help you feel more confident in being able to help your child reach his or her potential....

  • There has been ongoing controversy surrounding certain vaccines and their relationship to autism. Some parents have been concerned that vaccines, specifically the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and preservatives used in other childhood vaccines, play a role in children developing autism. There have been a lot of...

  • Behavioral training teaches people of all ages who have autism how to communicate appropriately. This type of training can reduce behavior problems and improve adaptation skills. Both behavioral training and behavioral management use positive reinforcement to improve behavior. They also use social skills training to...

  • Having a family member with autism presents many challenges. Support and training for parents and siblings are important components of treatment. Training family members about autism and how to effectively manage the symptoms can reduce family stress and improve the functioning of the child with autism. Some families...

  • The safety and effectiveness of some therapies used to treat autism is not known. Many unproven treatments circulate through websites, word of mouth, or the media. Most have not been subjected to thorough, sound research and are considered...

  • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) of 1975 is a federal law. It is also known as Public Law 94–142. It requires public schools to provide appropriate educational services for all children with disabilities between ages 3 and 21....

  • Although symptoms may change and even improve, autism is a lifelong condition that presents many challenges through adulthood. Whether an adult with autism lives in a group home, independently, or with family, he or she still requires parental or...

  • What is stuttering? Stuttering is a speech problem in which you may repeat, draw out, not complete, or skip words or sounds without meaning to. The problem can range from mild to severe. Stuttering that starts during a child's early language-learning years (ages 2 through 7 years) and goes away on its own before...

  • Normal disfluency is stuttering that begins during a child's intensive language-learning years and resolves on its own sometime before puberty. It is considered a normal phase of language development. About 75 out of 100 children who stutter get better without treatment. The most common normal disfluency in children...

  • Speech and language development milestones relate to receptive language (the ability to understand words and sounds) and expressive language (the ability to use speech and gestures to communicate meaning). Receptive language skills are the first...

  • Speech and language development milestones relate to receptive language (the ability to understand words and sounds) and expressive language (the ability to use speech and gestures to communicate meaning). Most 1-year-olds begin to understand the meanings of words. Their receptive language grows from understanding...

  • Speech and language development milestones relate to receptive language (the ability to understand words and sounds) and expressive language (the ability to use speech and gestures to communicate meaning). A child's speech and language development becomes more advanced beginning around age 3 through age 5. Receptive...

  • A child's failure to reach speech and language milestones as expected may be a "red flag," or warning, meaning a speech and language development problem. If your child does not reach developmental milestones on schedule, it does not necessarily mean there is a problem. But he or she should be evaluated by a health...

  • This topic suggests ways to help prevent illness and accidental injuries in young children. It does not cover every risk that a child faces, but it does cover many of the most common hazards and situations that can be dangerous to children ages 2 to 5 years. What can you expect from your child at this age...

  • Orthopedic surgery is used to treat tight muscles and spasticity related to cerebral palsy. An incision is made in the skin over the affected muscle. Parts of the muscle are then cut to release the tightness.

  • Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is the most common nerve surgery for symptoms related to cerebral palsy (CP). During SDR, a surgeon cuts the skin over the lower part of the spinal cord. The surgeon then finds and cuts the nerves in the cord that are causing muscle tightness in the legs.

  • Disease-causing germs spread anytime large numbers of people are together or when people share items. Germs spread more easily during the colder months, because people spend a lot of time indoors around one another. Close and frequent contact with others makes it easier for germs to spread. Immunizations help protect...

  • Offers tips to prevent illness and accidental injuries in babies and young children. Covers SIDS. Discusses common safety hazards. Also discusses healthy habits such as safe food preparation, using car seats, and immunizations. Covers safe baby products.

  • Why it is important to clean toys and surfaces Washing and disinfecting toys and surfaces helps reduce the spread of germs, especially in child care settings or other areas where many children are together. Have a bin for dirty toys that is out of your child's reach. When a toy becomes dirty, such as after a child has...

  • Protecting babies Each new learning stage for your baby requires increased attention on your part to prevent an injury. It may surprise you how fast your baby can move from one stage to the next. Being aware of your baby's abilities and what skills he or she is likely to develop next will help you prevent...

  • Lists common products that could be poisonous, including household cleaners, medicines, alcohol, cosmetics, garden products, and houseplants. Also covers chemicals and fumes. Offers tips on keeping children safe. Offers poisoning hotline telephone number.

  • Steps to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning include the following: Purchase and install a carbon monoxide detector on each level of your home and near sleeping areas. Use those marked UL 2034 or IAS 6–96, which have met the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission guidelines. Follow the directions carefully for...

  • Burns are a potential hazard in any home. There are four kinds of burning hazards that may hurt your child: Heat burns Electrical burns Friction burns Chemical burns Heat burns Heat burns, also called thermal burns, are caused by contact with fire, steam, hot objects, or hot...

  • Keep pets in good health All pets, whether they are kept indoors or outside, should be in good health, show no evidence of disease, and be friendly toward children. The following suggestions benefit your pets and may also help protect young children from both illness and injury: Immunize cats and dogs, and...

  • Many near-drowning and drowning accidents occur in the bathtub and can be prevented by following these recommendations: Never leave a baby alone in the bathtub, even for a moment. Always keep the baby within arm's reach. Never leave children in charge of watching their younger siblings while bathing, even if they are...

  • Briefly discusses drowning hazards and teaching swimming safety. Offers tips on keeping children safe around indoor water sources, including water in bathtubs, toilets, and containers, and outdoor water hazards like pools, ditches, and wells.

  • Swimming pools Most childhood drownings occur in swimming pools. When visiting public or private pools, make sure that your children are supervised closely and that they are familiar with pool safety rules. If you have a pool at your home, use these tips to help prevent drowning tragedies: Pool safety...

  • It takes a lot of repetition to teach young children about the dangers of streets, cars, and other vehicles. Motor vehicles can cause severe injury and death, so it is very important that you are not lax about enforcing these rules. Help prevent an...

  • Many parents are concerned about child abduction by strangers. Although this is a legitimate concern, keep in mind that stranger abduction is rare. Family members or acquaintances are responsible for most child abductions. Train your child to be aware of his or her surroundings, how to identify a threat, and how to...

  • Playgrounds may have hazards that can cause injury. Following some basic safety measures can help your child have fun and play safely. Make sure there is a soft surface under play equipment, such as sand, wood chips, or rubber matting. Check the...

  • Taking your child out of the house allows him or her to have new experiences and interactions. You may start using a stroller as soon as your baby is born and continue to do so well into early childhood. You may also want your child to ride in a shopping cart when you go to stores. Only use well-maintained strollers and...

  • Many parents who ride bikes like to include their young children. Riding tricycles is also a fun outdoor activity for preschoolers age 3 and older. To avoid injury from these activities, consider the following safety measures to protect your...

  • Smog and particulate matter (such as pollen, soot, and dust) are examples of air pollution. Children's lungs are especially sensitive to the harmful effects of air pollution, because they breathe rapidly and inhale a high concentration of pollution relative to their weight. Use care when you take your young...

  • It's important for your child to have regularly scheduled checkups, often called well-child visits, beginning shortly after birth and lasting through the teen years. These appointments allow your doctor to keep a close eye on your child's general health and development. Finding possible problems early gives your child...

  • Small children, even some 1-year-olds, are able to pull the trigger on a gun. Also, older children or adults can mishandle guns or firearms and injure others. The American Academy of Pediatrics encourages parents to avoid keeping guns and firearms...

  • Preventing household fires is one way to prevent injury or death from burns. General fire precautions Teach children that only grown-ups use fire. Keep lighters and matches out of reach of children. Use at least one smoke alarm on every level of your home. Be sure to put an alarm outside sleeping areas and inside...

  • The crib is the one place where babies and young children are regularly left unsupervised. To help keep your child safe, use recommended equipment properly and update features of the crib as your child grows. Crib safety standards The strict guidelines for crib construction help prevent many accidents. If a...

  • Young children can easily choke on food and everyday objects. You can help prevent your child from choking by offering the right kinds of foods and watching for choking hazards. Food Watching how your child eats can also help prevent choking. Teach your child to eat only in the kitchen and dining room. Be...

  • Children's language development is likely to progress more rapidly when they are given frequent opportunities to interact with both children and adults. Children who frequently play with others who are about the same age usually develop expressive...

  • Think of discipline as a way to guide and teach your child about positive ways to behave. A parenting style that works well is one that uses discipline proactively. The goal is to use techniques that encourage your child's sense of responsibility, nurture self-esteem, and strengthen your relationship with your child...

  • The foundation for breastfeeding is established in the first few weeks after delivery. Planning ahead for breastfeeding can help you build a good breastfeeding routine. Minor problems may occur during breastfeeding. But with proper planning,...

  • The antioxidant and other protective properties of breast milk are most important and beneficial to your baby when breast milk is fresh. The protective components of breast milk decrease with refrigeration and freezing. But stored breast milk is the next best thing to fresh breast milk as a complete and nutritious food...

  • Breastfeeding more than one child is called tandem breastfeeding. If you continue to feed your older child along with your newborn, keep in mind that the newborn's feeding is the higher priority. Some general feeding guidelines can help ensure that your newborn is properly nourished: Feed the newborn about 8 to 12...

  • If your baby has signs of a minor illness (such as cold symptoms or mild diarrhea), it is best to continue your breastfeeding routine. Breast milk provides your baby with the best possible nutrition. If your baby is too ill to breastfeed, try cup-feeding. With this technique, you feed your baby collected breast milk...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development. Milestones usually are...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development. Milestones usually are...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development. Milestones usually are...

  • Cup-feeding is a way to provide breast milk or formula to a baby who is unwilling or unable to breastfeed or drink from a bottle. If a mother wants to breastfeed, cup-feeding is also sometimes used as an alternative to bottle-feeding for a baby who needs supplementation for a few days. To cup-feed your baby, fill a...

  • It can be hard to know when and how to go about toilet training. Although your child should show physical and emotional signs that he or she is ready, such as letting you know when he or she has had a bowel movement and wanting to wear underpants, there usually is not a dramatic moment that clearly shows your child is...

  • Your child may have developmental delays as well as other problems that can make children, teens, and adults who have Down syndrome vulnerable to abuse, injury, and other types of harm. You can help manage and prevent these types of problems by...

  • People with Down syndrome usually have some level of independence by the time they become adults. Different types of specialized therapies, counseling, and training can help them learn necessary skills and manage emotional issues. The common types...

  • Children with Down syndrome who do not have severe physical disabilities can learn to dress themselves. Teach your child how to dress himself or herself by taking extra time to explain and practice. Explain what you are doing when you dress your...

  • Being a parent of a child with physical, emotional, or behavioral problems can be exhausting. Try to take good care of your physical and emotional health. Doing so will help provide you with needed energy to care for your child with special needs....

  • If your baby is teething, you may have questions that many other parents ask. Are my baby's symptoms caused by teething? When teething, many babies drool. Teething happens during the same time that babies are putting "everything" into their mouths. (Your baby is going through the oral discovery phase of...

  • Your child's physical growth during the second year, although considerable, is less rapid than during the first year. In the second year, toddlers gain an average of 3 lb (1.4 kg) to 5 lb (2.3 kg) and grow an average of 3 in. (7.6 cm) to 5 in. (12.7 cm). Normal and expected physical growth requires adequate...

  • The brain grows dramatically through the second year of life. Around 12 months, toddlers develop a new ability to remember experiences that occurred a few hours or even a day earlier. Toddlers often demonstrate this new ability by repeating a recalled experience, such as throwing a ball or stacking blocks, at a later...

  • Toddlers form strong emotional attachments and often feel uneasy when they are separated from their loved ones. Around the same time, toddlers typically want to do things on their own or according to their own wishes. This sets the stage for conflict, confusion, and occasional breakdowns. Toddlers typically develop...

  • Between 12 and 24 months of age, changes in the brain help your toddler learn and understand language. Most toddlers understand many more words than they are able to speak. For example, they are often able to point to their nose or eyes or other body parts when asked, even though they may not say the words for them...

  • Learning to walk is the defining athletic accomplishment for children between 12 and 24 months of age. Those first steps are possible because of changes taking place within the brain and the spinal cord. Coordination and muscle control advance as the brain grows and matures. Most children start walking by 13 months of...

  • Using techniques to help your child control symptoms of croup can help prevent the need to see a doctor at a clinic or emergency room. These techniques focus on keeping your child's airway open to make breathing easier. Keep calm and soothe your child. Anxiety and panic can make symptoms worse. Recognize that...

  • Babies grow rapidly during the first year of life. Weight, length, and head circumference measurements are plotted on growth charts to monitor your baby's growth over time. Most babies: Grow about 3 in. (7.5 cm) to 4.5 in. (11 cm) in length by 4 months of age. Although growth may slow slightly between 4...

  • Cognitive development is the process by which the brain develops the abilities to learn and remember. Cognitive development follows a typical pattern in the first 12 months of life. Between 1 and 2 months of age, infants become interested in new...

  • Emotional and social growth during the first year of life can be both fascinating and exciting. As babies bond with their parents and caregivers, their interactions become more personal and engaging. Although your baby is unique and will exhibit his...

  • Sensory and motor development is the gradual process by which a child gains use and coordination of the large muscles of the legs, trunk, and arms, and the smaller muscles of the hands. A baby begins to experience new awareness through sight, touch,...

  • Significant speech and language delays are directly related to developmental or health issues. But some people blame speech and language delays on factors that are not the cause of true delays, such as: Developmental variation. Mild and temporary speech delays can occur. And some children learn new words...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development. Milestones usually are...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development. Milestones usually are...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development. Milestones usually are...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development. Milestones usually are...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development. Milestones usually are...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development. Milestones usually are...

  • Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development. Milestones usually are...

  • Kernicterus is a very rare type of brain damage that occurs in a newborn with severe jaundice. It happens when a substance in the blood, called bilirubin, builds up to very high levels and spreads into the brain tissues. This causes permanent brain...

  • What is rotavirus, and what causes it? Rotavirus is a virus that infects the intestinal tract. You can get rotavirus more than once, but the first infection is usually the worst. This infection causes stomach upset and diarrhea. Babies and very young children who have rotavirus infections need to be watched...

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) creates Vaccine Information Statements (VISs), which have details about most vaccines given in the United States. The VISs are updated when needed. The information in these statements does not change often. Each VIS explains why to get the vaccine, the risks from...

  • Sex is part of a healthy life and is part of your quality of life. Most people with heart failure can still have an active sex life. If you have mild heart failure, your doctor will likely say that sex is safe for your heart. If you have more severe heart failure, your doctor will likely check your health to make sure...

  • Doctors have several options for treating a bowel obstruction caused by twisting of the intestine (volvulus). The choice of procedure depends on the location of the obstruction. If the obstruction is caused by a twisting of the sigmoid area of the large intestine, a doctor may try to straighten out the twisting segment...

  • What is motion sickness? If you've ever been sick to your stomach on a rocking boat or a bumpy airplane ride, you know the discomfort of motion sickness. It doesn't cause long-term problems, but it can make your life miserable, especially if you travel a lot. Children from 5 to 12 years old, women, and older adults...

  • Rheumatic fever is a bacterial infection that can cause problems with the heart's aortic and mitral valves. Rheumatic fever is caused by certain strains of streptococcal bacteria. A strep throat infection that isn't properly treated can trigger rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever can damage heart muscle and heart valves...

  • Discusses causes and symptoms of asthma in children. Looks at treatment with medicine such as inhaled corticosteroid and albuterol. Discusses avoiding triggers and treating attacks. Covers using nebulizers, metered-dose with spacer and dry powder inhalers.

  • You can lower your chance of being bitten by an insect or spiderlike animal (arachnid) by using insect repellents. Mosquitoes, biting flies, and ticks can cause annoying bites and sometimes a serious disease. Mosquito bites can spread infections such as West Nile virus, a virus that causes swelling of the brain (...

  • What is bullying? Bullying is acting in ways that scare or harm another person. Kids who bully usually pick on someone who is weaker or more alone, and they repeat the actions over and over. Bullying starts in elementary school and becomes most common in middle school. By high school, it is less common but still...

  • Children who are being bullied may be embarrassed and not want to talk about it. Be aware of the signs that your child is being bullied so you can help resolve the problem. If your child is being bullied, he or she may: Have physical injuries. Bruises, cuts, scrapes, and scratches are common. "Lose" items frequently...

  • Children who are socially withdrawn, shy, and appear to lack self-esteem are more likely than other children to be targets for bullying. Children who appear confident and strong are better able to discourage children from harassing them. Parents and other important adults in a child's life can use these suggestions to...

  • It can be hard to accept that your child may be bullying other children. But once you recognize the problem, you can help solve it by helping your child learn how his or her actions affect others. Being sensitive to others' feelings (empathy) is largely a learned skill that you can teach your child. Take your child's...

  • Teaches counting carbs to help you maintain control of your blood sugar level when you have diabetes. Explains why carb counting is important, allowing you to adjust the amount of insulin you take. Includes links to more info on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  • What are the eustachian tubes, and how do they get blocked? The eustachian (say "you-STAY-shee-un") tubes connect the middle ears to the back of the throat. The tubes help the ears drain fluid. They also keep air pressure in the ears at the right level. When you swallow or yawn, the tubes open briefly to let air in to...

  • A hydrocele (say "HY-druh-seel") is a buildup of watery fluid around one or both testicles. It causes the scrotum or groin area to swell. A congenital hydrocele is one that a baby is born with. Hydroceles can also occur later in life for a number of...

  • Your child's tics related to Tourette's disorder may seem worse in certain situations or during times when he or she experiences strong emotions. Common triggers include: Stressful events, such as a family fight or poor performance at school....

  • Signs that a baby may be ready to wean often appear after the baby has learned to crawl (7 to 8 months) or learned to walk (9 to 15 months). If you are breastfeeding, your baby may: Suck a few times and then stop nursing. Look around, play with your...

  • Use these checklists once a month to see how you are doing to stay safe in case of a vertigo attack. How many of the items can you say "yes" to? Try to do all the items on each list. Date:_________ Checklist for the home ____Walkways around the house (especially to the bathroom or telephone) are clear of furniture...

  • A low-protein diet is the main treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). This is because people who have PKU lack an enzyme to properly process the amino acid phenylalanine, a part of protein. Phenylalanine is present in all protein foods and in some...

  • Cystic fibrosis causes mucus to become thick and sticky, which can clog the lungs and cause serious problems. You can help your child maintain lung function and avoid complications from mucus buildup and blockage by performing an airway clearance technique (ACT). Postural drainage and chest percussion (PD & P) is one of...

  • Children and teens notice and react to stress in their family and also experience their own stress. It is important to recognize stress in children and teens and help them with healthy coping strategies. The strategies they learn often stay with them into adulthood. Generally, anything that may cause children fear and...

  • Guides through decision to take antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Explains when antibiotics are helpful. Covers risks of antibiotics. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Coughing is your body's way of getting foreign substances and mucus out of your lungs and upper airway passages. Coughs are often useful, and you should not try to stop them. Sometimes, though, coughs are severe enough to make breathing difficult, cause vomiting, or prevent rest. Home treatment can help you feel more...

  • What is bronchiolitis? Bronchiolitis is an infection of the bronchioles, the small air passages in the lungs. It is common in infants and is the leading cause of serious lower respiratory illness. What causes bronchiolitis? Bronchiolitis is caused by a virus, especially respiratory syncytial virus...

  • If your child has been diagnosed by a doctor as being overweight or at risk of becoming overweight, a thorough medical exam is important to identify and treat any related health problems. History Your doctor will ask about: Your child's weight history, to see if your child has had an unusual change in rate of...

  • When a doctor asks questions about your child's eating and activity habits, the information helps identify patterns that may lead to extra weight. Nutrition history You may be asked: To describe your family's meals and snacks during a typical day. What your child eats at school. Who is responsible for meals. Is...

  • Children who eat poorly are more likely to develop certain long-term health problems and complications, including: Osteoporosis in later life. Cardiovascular diseases. Growing up eating foods high in fat, sugar, and salt can increase the risk for...

  • The division of responsibility is a way of feeding your child that takes the battle out of meal times. From birth until your child is between 6 months and 1 year old, you are responsible for what your child eats, and your child is responsible for how much and how often he or she eats. (Infants are fed on demand.) As...

  • Health professionals who see infants and children screen for (watch for early signs of) developmental disabilities at every well-child visit. Developmental problems can affect how a child can talk, move, concentrate, and/or socialize. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends developmental testing for children...

  • Covers helping a child with asthma use a metered-dose inhaler with mask spacer. Explains that a metered dose inhaler delivers a measured dose of medicine directly to the lungs. Includes pictures on how to use metered-dose inhaler with mask spacer.

  • An asthma action plan is a written plan that tells you how to treat your asthma on a daily basis. The plan also helps you deal with sudden increases in your or your child's asthma symptoms ( asthma attacks). You need to treat the inflammation in your lungs to minimize the long-term effects of asthma. The plan tells you...

  • Talking with your partner may help your sexual function, whether it be erection problems for men or lack of arousal for women. Couples often wrongly assume that they each know what the other person likes when it comes to sex, but likes and dislikes may change after a spinal cord injury (SCI). Talk about how the SCI...

  • Asthma is the most common long-lasting (chronic) disease of childhood. It usually develops before age 5. Many children who have allergies get asthma, but not all. And not every child with asthma has allergies. In most cases of persistent asthma, the first symptoms (such as wheezing) start in the first years of life...

  • Fluoride is a mineral that helps prevent tooth decay and dental cavities. It may be added to local water supplies, toothpastes, and other mouth care products. Pediatric dentists recommend that you use a rice-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste up to age 3. Ask your dentist if this is right for your child. Use a...

  • Your child's primary teeth usually begin to break through the gums (erupt) at about 6 months of age. This is called teething. Teeth break through the gums in a certain order, typically from the front to the back of the mouth. Lower teeth often appear 1 to 2 months before the corresponding upper teeth. A change in...

  • My child's name is __________________________. My child's birthday is _________________. My child's doctor is __________________________. The doctor's phone number is _____________________. Age Immunization Dose Notes Date given Birth ...

  • Self-esteem is how you feel about yourself. You may have high self-esteem—you believe you are a good person—or it may be low, and you question how "good" or "worthy" you are. Everyone has low self-esteem at times. It may happen when someone says something bad about you or questions how well you do something. But if...

  • Excessive exposure to the sun and its ultraviolet (UV) rays can cause skin cancer. You can reduce your risk for skin cancer by: Protecting your skin, and that of your family members, from UV radiation. Performing frequent skin self-examinations. Finding out whether you have an increased risk for melanoma and other...

  • Home treatment for sickle cell disease includes steps you can take not only to control pain symptoms but also to prevent some of the complications caused by the disease. These complications include painful sickle cell crises. Have a pain management plan If you and your doctor have developed a pain...

  • Most children who have juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) will have some pain and discomfort from the disease. The pain of JIA is related to the type and severity of the disease, the child's pain threshold, and emotional and psychological factors. Pain limits a child's ability to function. With care and good...

  • Don't drink too much alcohol before eating. It may dull your senses, and you might not chew food properly or might try to swallow too large a portion of food. Take small bites. Cut meat into small pieces. Chew your food thoroughly. Do not give popcorn, nuts, or hard candy to children younger than 4, and...

  • If your baby is born with Down syndrome, you will likely have many questions and strong emotions. Your doctor can help answer your questions. And he or she can guide you to appropriate resources to help you manage your feelings and plan for your...

  • If your baby is born with Down syndrome, you will likely have many questions and strong emotions. Your doctor can help answer your questions. And he or she can guide you to appropriate resources to help you manage your feelings and plan for your...

  • If your child who has Down syndrome is between the ages of 1 and 5 years, you will likely have ongoing questions and concerns. Your doctor can help answer your questions and guide you to appropriate resources to help you manage your feelings and...

  • If your child with Down syndrome is between the ages of 5 and 13, you will likely have ongoing questions and concerns. Your doctor can help answer your questions. And he or she can guide you to appropriate resources to help you manage your feelings...

  • If your child with Down syndrome is an adolescent or young adult between the ages of 13 and 21, you will likely have ongoing questions and concerns. Your doctor can help answer your questions. And he or she can guide you to appropriate resources...

  • Covers type 2 diabetes in children. Discusses how obesity or being overweight is causing type 2 diabetes in kids. Includes info on treatment. Discusses monitoring blood sugar levels. Includes info on hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.

  • Cholesterol (or lipid) problems are common in diabetes. These problems are usually related to obesity and insulin resistance. They can also be related to lack of insulin in your body. Triglyceride blood levels are usually elevated. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) blood level is usually low...

  • High blood sugar from diabetes can affect the body's immune system, impairing the ability of white blood cells to come to the site of an infection, stay in the infected area, and kill microorganisms. Because of the buildup of plaque in blood vessels associated with diabetes, areas of infection may receive a poor blood...

  • A1c is a test that shows the average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. People who have diabetes usually have this test to see whether their blood sugar levels have been staying within a target range. This test is also used to...

  • The table below summarizes many of the tests that can be done to identify complications from diabetes, including those tests done during a physical exam. The physical exam evaluates your overall health. The doctor pays special attention to your...

  • In general, people with diabetes either have a total lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or they have too little insulin or cannot use insulin effectively (type 2 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), accounts for 5 to 10 out of 100 people who have diabetes. In type 1...

  • Sometimes complications develop even when risk factors such as blood sugar level and blood pressure have been controlled. But following your treatment to control your blood sugar levels is still an important part of your treatment. The most common serious complications from diabetes are coronary artery disease (CAD)...

  • Over time, high blood sugar levels from diabetes lead to damage of the retina, the layer on the back of the eye that captures images and sends them as nerve signals to the brain. Whether diabetic retinopathy develops depends in part on how high blood sugar levels have been and how long they have been above a target...

  • Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong disease that currently has no cure. Your child needs to take insulin injections. This can be a scary process for adults, not to mention for a child. If your child is very young, you will need to give these injections. When your child is older, he or she can take on some of the...

  • Nicotine is only one of the thousands of chemicals in tobacco, but it is the major component that acts on the brain. The lungs readily absorb nicotine from the smoke of cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. The tissues of the mouth can also absorb nicotine when a person smokes cigars or pipes or chews tobacco. Nicotine reaches...

  • Many things work together to cause foot problems in people who have diabetes, especially poor circulation and nerve disease (neuropathy). Neuropathy significantly dulls awareness of your feet, making you more susceptible to extensive injury-related damage. Also, diabetes can impair your ability to heal by both damaging...

  • When a food comes in a package, take a look at the Nutrition Facts label and ingredient list on the package. Start with the "% Daily Value" column on the food label. A food is considered low in a specific nutrient (such as fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, or sodium) if it has 5% or less of the daily value. A food is...

  • With planning and thoughtful choices, you can follow your meal plan for diabetes when you eat away from home, such as at a party or a restaurant. Here are some tips: Plan ahead At restaurants, check for online menus that include nutrition information before you go, or ask for this information when you arrive. Most...

  • If you are a woman with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who is planning to become pregnant, meet with your doctor. Your doctor will want to talk to you about your A1c goal, your medicine for diabetes, your weight, and getting enough folic acid. Your doctor will want to make sure that you are up to date with immunizations. And...

  • Even though you have diabetes, you can have the same success with breastfeeding as any other woman. Breastfeeding is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and other medical specialist organizations, because it benefits the mother and the infant. Make sure your diabetes care team and other members of the...

  • Small children tend to go through phases of picky eating. Try to offer a wide variety of fun, nutritious choices. Don't force your child to eat. Don't restrict fat in the diet of children younger than age 2. Most children need whole milk between 1 and 2 years of age. But your doctor may recommend 2% milk...

  • New challenges emerge when your child with diabetes begins school. Starting a good communication system with key people at the school can help make this transition a smooth one. It's helpful to schedule a conference with school personnel—principal,...

  • You may find it difficult to stay motivated to manage your diabetes appropriately. The following suggestions may help. Set goals and provide positive reinforcement Praise and reward yourself for the things you do right. Use nonfood rewards, such as clothing, sports equipment, books, a golf trip, or a movie night...

  • The program you choose for your teen needs to view substance use as a primary disease and not as a symptom. Your teen needs to have a comprehensive evaluation to determine the level of substance use and the presence of psychiatric or medical conditions. If you need to place your teen in a treatment program, look for...

  • You don't see as well as you used to. Eye problems such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, cataracts, or diabetic retinopathy may be making it hard to work and manage many of your daily activities. But don't give up. There are lots of things you can do to adapt to low vision and make your life easier...

  • What happens when you are sick When you are sick, your body reacts by releasing hormones to fight infection. But these hormones raise blood sugar levels and at the same time make it more difficult for insulin to lower blood sugar. When you have diabetes, even a minor illness can lead to dangerously high blood sugar...

  • Teaches counting carbs to help you and your child plan meals to manage diabetes and control blood sugar. Explains why carb counting is important. Includes links to more info on counting carbs if you use insulin and on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  • If your child doesn't want to feel the insulin needle, your child's doctor can prescribe an indwelling subcutaneous cannula. A small needle is used to insert a soft tube into a place where you give your child an insulin shot, such as the belly. The needle is taken out, but the soft tube (cannula) stays in your child's...

  • Describes monitoring blood sugar levels in children with diabetes. Covers list of supplies needed, including blood sugar meter, testing strips, and lancet. Gives step-by-step instructions. Links to info on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  • Discusses high blood sugar (also called hyperglycemia) in children with diabetes. Covers symptoms. Offers tips on preventing high blood sugar emergencies. Covers when to seek emergency care.

  • Low blood sugar, also called hypoglycemia, occurs when the sugar (glucose) level in the blood of a person with diabetes drops below what the body needs to function normally. Taking too much insulin, not eating enough food or skipping meals, or exercising more than usual can cause blood sugar levels to drop rapidly. If...

  • Foot problems in people with diabetes are usually treated by keeping blood sugar levels in a target blood sugar range and by using medicine, surgery, and other types of treatment. When foot problems develop, those problems need prompt treatment so that serious complications don't develop. Even problems that seem...

  • Covers type 1 diabetes in children. Includes info on managing diabetes. Discusses using glucose monitors for blood glucose testing. Includes links to info on dealing with diabetes in school. Includes info on hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.

  • Young children with type 1 diabetes aren't able to recognize when their blood sugar level is high or low and then tell an adult. And sometimes it's even hard for a parent to tell the difference. Some signs that may indicate high or low blood sugar in a very young child include: Irritability, anger, or crying...

  • Blood vessel and nerve damage linked with diabetes can lead to serious infections that are extremely hard to treat. Often the first place you have a problem is your feet. When you lose the ability to feel your toes and feet, you are more likely to injure them without knowing it. Even a minor injury, such as a small cut...

  • Camps for children who have diabetes provide an opportunity for the child to meet and share experiences with other children who have the disease. These camps support the child in assuming responsibility for his or her disease and gaining independence in diabetes care. It's also a fun outdoor experience that may include...

  • Urinary problems and injuries are a concern in children. A young child may not be able to tell you about his or her symptoms, which can make it hard to decide what your child needs. An older child may be embarrassed about his or her symptoms. When your child has a urinary problem or injury, look at all of his or her...

  • Most people will have some kind of urinary problem or injury in their lifetime. Urinary tract problems and injuries can range from minor to more serious. Sometimes, minor and serious problems can start with the same symptoms. Many urinary problems and injuries are minor, and home treatment is all that is needed to...

  • Discusses tonsillitis. Covers symptoms like sore throat and swollen lymph nodes. Includes causes like the bacteria that cause strep throat. Discusses home treatment, nonprescription pain medicines, surgery to remove tonsils (tonsillectomy).

  • Guides through decision to breastfeed. Discusses common concerns and issues related to breastfeeding. Links to personal stories. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Guides through decision to have your child get the HPV vaccine. Explains the vaccination process and includes tips on how to talk to your child about HPV. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Talk to your doctor if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and are planning to get pregnant. To make sure that both you and your baby stay healthy, you may need to fine-tune your diabetes care before you get pregnant. If you have diabetes and want to get pregnant, the most important thing you can do is to get your...

  • A diabetes care plan will help your child's teachers and other school staff know when and how to manage your child's diabetes. For example, if your child needs to eat shortly after taking insulin or to have a snack in class, then a teacher or other adult can make sure that this happens. At the same time, the teacher...

  • Vomiting occurs when a child's stomach contents are forced up the esophagus and out of the mouth. Although nausea may accompany vomiting in adults and older children, children younger than age 3 are usually not able to tell you if they are having nausea. Most of the time vomiting is not serious. Home treatment will...

  • Discusses pinkeye (conjunctivitis). Covers what causes it and symptoms. Offers home treatment tips. Also offers tips to prevent spreading it. Includes pictures of normal eye and one with pinkeye.

  • A child may have a higher chance of having high cholesterol if he or she: Is overweight. Does not exercise much. Does not eat healthy foods. Has a family history of high cholesterol. Your child's doctor may suggest a cholesterol test based on your...

  • What is swimmer's ear? Swimmer's ear ( otitis externa) is an inflammation or infection of the ear canal, the passage that leads from the outer ear to the eardrum. This condition is called swimmer's ear, because it commonly occurs in people who have been swimming. But other people can get it too. What causes swimmer's...

  • Covers making your home fall-proof to prevent injuries. Looks at common hazards like clutter and throw rugs. Discusses simple changes you can make in your home and the way you do some activities to reduce risk of falling.

  • Antidepressant medicines often work well, but they do have some risks and side effects. Their use may increase the risk of suicide, especially in the first few weeks of use. If your child starts antidepressants, be sure to be aware of this risk and get help if you see any of the warning signs. Before prescribing...

  • My name:__________________ Doctor's name: ___________________ Doctor's phone: _______________ Controller medicine How much? How often? Other instructions Quick-relief medicine How much? How often? Other instructions...

  • Children who take insulin are at risk of hypoglycemia during and after exercise. But with good planning and awareness, a child can exercise and participate in sports safely. Good planning means checking blood sugars before, during, and after exercise. Then, you can keep a record of how exercise affects your child's...

  • Starting at age 10 or at the beginning of puberty, a child who has a body mass index (BMI) in the 85th percentile or higher for his or her age—or whose weight is more than 120% of ideal—and who has one of the following risk factors needs to be...

  • After getting approval from several expert groups, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the following immunization schedules: Childhood Immunization Schedule: Ages 0 to 6 Years Childhood Immunization Schedule: Ages 7 to 18 Years Adults ages...

  • Print this page and fill in the information if you are bringing your child in for an appointment. What questions or concerns do I have about my child that I want addressed during this appointment? Are there any recent stresses in the family that may be affecting my child, such as death of a loved one, loss...

  • After getting approval from several expert groups, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the following immunization schedule for adults. You can view it online at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html.

  • What is an environmental illness? An environmental illness can occur when you are exposed to toxins or substances in the environment that make you sick. These health hazards may be found where you live, work, or play. Maybe you have headaches that only occur on weekends. Or maybe you began to feel sick and got a...

  • Exposure to indoor air pollutants can cause respiratory problems, such as asthma attacks, or diseases, such as lung cancer. Pollutants include smoke, pet dander, radon, mold, cleaning products, and other chemicals. You can create a healthier home by following the tips below. Reduce allergens Groom pets often to...

  • Describes clubfoot and what causes it. Covers symptoms and diagnosis. Also covers treatment, including surgery and nonsurgical methods. Offers info on when clubfoot might point to a more serious problem.

  • Discusses controlling and preventing nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy. Looks at antinausea drugs including Zofran and Ativan. Also discusses complementary therapy, acupuncture, and nutrition.

  • What are the most common skin conditions in newborns? It's very common for newborns to have rashes or other skin problems. Some of them have long names that are hard to say and sound scary. But most will go away on their own in a few days or weeks. Here are some of the things you may notice about your baby's skin...

  • What are colds? Everyone gets a cold from time to time. Children get more colds than adults. Colds usually last 1 to 2 weeks. You can catch a cold at any time of year, but they are more common in late winter and early spring. There is no cure for a cold. Antibiotics will not cure a cold. If you catch a cold...

  • Discusses gastroenteritis (also called stomach flu) caused by a virus or bacteria. Covers symptoms like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. Offers home treatment tips. Also offers prevention tips. Covers when you should seek care.

  • Guides you through decision to get an insulin pump to manage type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Discusses who makes a good candidate for an insulin pump. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • More and more people with diabetes are using insulin pumps instead of daily shots to manage their disease. The pumps give them more freedom to eat, sleep, and exercise when they want. A pump can be an important tool in preventing problems like very low blood sugar. But using an insulin pump takes some getting used to...

  • Infants born before 28 weeks of pregnancy are called "extremely premature." If your infant is born this early, you likely will face some hard decisions. Your premature infant has a much greater chance than ever before of doing well. A baby has the best chance of survival in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) that...

  • Guides readers through the decision to take antibiotics for sore throat. Explains the causes of sore throat and that most sore throats are caused by virus. Explains that antibiotics only work for sore throat caused by bacterial infections.

  • A newborn goes back and forth between sleeping and waking during a 24-hour day. Over the first 3 months, the baby gradually sleeps for longer periods. By the third or fourth month, most babies sleep for their longest period (up to 7 to 8 hours) during the night and develop set nap times. You can help your baby—and...

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