Health Library

The Health Library is a collection of health and wellness resources created for learning and accessibility. Select a topic below for related health information or search for a topic in the search bar for more information on other medical conditions.

Oncology

  • Radiation therapy is used to destroy cancer cells. This procedure may require 15 to 30 visits to a facility with special equipment. Radiation therapy may be used in combination with other types of therapy to treat aggressive or recurrent skin cancer.

  • Curettage is the process of scraping skin with a spoon-shaped instrument (curette) to remove skin tissue. Electrosurgery is the burning of skin tissue with an electric current that runs through a metal instrument or needle. Electrosurgery may be done after curettage to control bleeding and destroy any remaining cancer...

  • Most lung cancer is caused by smoking. After you quit, your risk for lung cancer drops gradually. By 10 years, your risk will be about half of what it would have been if you had continued to smoke. This risk continues to decline as the number of years of not smoking increases. Two other lung diseases related to smoking...

  • Some breast cancers need the hormones estrogen or progesterone to grow. These cancer cells have "receptors" on their surfaces. Receptors are like doorways to let hormones in. These types of breast cancer are called estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+)...

  • Learn how to prepare for your colonoscopy and what to expect during the procedure.

  • Learn to cope with your feelings after finding out you have cancer.

  • Get tips for managing skin changes caused by radiation treatment.

  • Compare the pros and cons of having breast reconstruction.

  • What is immunotherapy? Immunotherapy helps treat cancer by supporting the body's immune system. This type of treatment can restore, boost, or redirect the immune system. What types of immunotherapy are used? The types include: Medicines, such as checkpoint inhibitors, cytokines, and monoclonal...

  • For years, studies have shown that for early-stage breast cancer, women who have breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) followed by radiation treatments live just as long as women who have mastectomy. This was good news for women who wanted to avoid...

  • Learn what it's like to have an ileostomy procedure.

  • Learn what a prostatectomy is and how it's done.

  • Learn how to care for yourself after a prostatectomy.

  • Screening tests help your doctor look for a problem before you have symptoms. Lung cancer screening is a way to find some lung cancers early, when a cure is more likely and when cancer is more treatable. If your doctor recommends lung cancer screening, you'll have a low-dose CT scan of your chest once a year. A special...

  • Learn what to expect and how to care for yourself after a bone marrow transplant.

  • Find out how a bone marrow stem cell transplant replaces damaged cells with healthy ones.

  • Learn what acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is and what to expect for care and treatment.

  • Learn about some of the treatment options for childhood leukemia.

  • Find out how to work effectively with your child's care team to get answers and support.

  • Learn what acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is and what to expect for care and treatment.

  • Find out what to expect and how to prepare for a thyroidectomy.

  • Find out how you'll feel after a thyroidectomy and how to take care of yourself at home.

  • Learn how lung surgery is done and what you can do to prepare.

  • Learn how you'll feel after lung surgery and how to take care of yourself at home.

  • Hormone therapy for prostate cancer is also known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Prostate cancer cannot grow or survive without androgens, which include testosterone and other male hormones. Hormone therapy decreases the amount of androgens in a man's body. Reducing androgens can slow the growth of the cancer...

  • Provides links to info on cancer. Topics covered include breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cancer pain. Links to info that can help you make a decision on diagnostic or screening tests. Includes info on treatment choices.

  • Guides through decision on when to start having mammograms. Discusses the benefits and risks of having a mammogram and the risk for getting breast cancer. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • After breast surgery (mastectomy), you may feel some pain going down your arm. Your shoulder and arm may be stiff and hard to move. You may also have some loss of feeling there. The basic exercises described here will help you start moving your arm....

  • Describes pancreatic cancer. Talks about symptoms and what tests are used to diagnose it. Provides treatment details. Lists factors that raise your risk.

  • Whether to wear a breast form (prosthesis) after breast surgery is a very personal decision. Some women feel better about themselves when their clothes fit just as they did before surgery. Other women feel comfortable just as they are. You can buy these forms already made, or they can be custom-made from a mold of...

  • A colonoscopy is a test that lets a doctor look inside your colon. The doctor uses a thin, lighted tube called a colonoscope to look for small growths (called polyps), cancer, and other problems like bleeding. During the test, the doctor can take...

  • Knowing the stage and grade of a person's cancer helps doctors know what treatment to use. It also helps predict how long the person will survive or whether there is a good chance for a cure. Staging is a way to describe how much cancer is in the body and where it is located. If the cancer has spread, staging also...

  • Learn what to expect during bowel resection surgery.

  • Learn how a colostomy is done and what to expect after surgery.

  • Looks at a type of surgery that removes cancer from the pancreas. Covers why surgery is done and how well it works. Also covers risks.

  • Describes kidney cancer. Covers symptoms and how kidney cancer is diagnosed. Covers treatment with surgery and medicines.

  • Covers surgical removal of all or part of the kidney. Discusses why it may be done, such as for kidney cancer or to remove a damaged kidney. Looks at how well it works and the risks.

  • "I always considered myself quite good at handling stress, but cancer was a whole different story. It's the kind of stress nothing can prepare you for. My doctor suggested I see a counselor to learn some stress management skills. I wasn't sure at first, but I'm glad I stuck with it because these skills have really...

  • "In my head, I felt I was cured. After I recovered from my breast cancer surgery, that's how I thought of myself. So when my doctor told me last month that my cancer had come back, my world came crashing down, hard."—Kelly, 42 "When my doctor told me that my cancer had spread, I felt ready to give up then and there...

  • "When you hear the word 'cancer,' the worry begins. Am I going to survive this? How is it going to affect my family? I couldn't seem to focus on anything except cancer, and I felt like I'd lost control of my own thoughts. A friend suggested starting a journal, and I found that writing out my thoughts allowed me to let...

  • "When I heard the word 'cancer,' I couldn't believe it. Part of me was terrified, but another part was in denial. How could this happen to me? I just didn't want to deal with having cancer, didn't want to put my family through all of it. It took a...

  • Dealing with cancer can feel overwhelming. There's so much information to take in and so much to decide. It might seem easier to let your doctors make the decisions for you. It's true that doctors are experts on medical care. But you are the expert on yourself and your life. That's why it's important to be an...

  • "At first, I couldn't think of anything except how scared I was to have cancer. But as soon as I started asking questions about chemotherapy and learning how to take care of myself, I felt a little less afraid. The doctors and staff were great about answering all of my questions."—Earl, 66 "When I started...

  • "Even though the treatment worked and I'm cancer-free, I worry a lot about getting sick again."—Linda, 63 "You expect that after getting through chemotherapy, you can put it behind you and move on. I just wanted things to go back to normal. Some things did go back to how they were. But it's hard, because I feel like...

  • A cancer diagnosis changes your life, but it also affects the people who care about you. You're already dealing with your own distress about having cancer. And it can be hard to talk about it when you know people who care about you will be upset by the news. You may wonder: "How can I tell my children?"...

  • Laser surgery uses a wavelength of light that is focused in a narrow beam. This high-intensity light is used to shrink or destroy skin cancers or pre-cancers (actinic keratosis). With lasers, there is usually less bleeding, swelling, and scarring. Healing is quicker, and you are less likely to get an infection. Several...

  • If you've found out that you have a BRCA gene change, you may be feeling pretty overwhelmed. But when it comes to cancer, knowledge is power. Now that you know you are BRCA-positive, you can take steps to reduce your risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Thinking about cancer risk Experts know that women who are...

  • Lymphomas are either Hodgkin lymphomas or non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Hodgkin lymphomas have a type of cell called Reed-Sternberg cells. Lymphomas without these cells are non-Hodgkin lymphomas. This topic is about Hodgkin lymphoma. To learn about...

  • Is this topic for you? Anal cancer is not the same as cancer of the colon or rectum. To learn about these cancers, see the topic Colorectal Cancer. What is anal cancer? Anal cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in the anus, which is the opening at the end of the rectum. Anal cancer is not common and is often...

  • Guides you through decision to use active surveillance for men who have low-risk and for some men who have medium-risk localized prostate cancer. Lists reasons for and against active surveillance. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • When people use a tanning bed or booth or a sunlamp to get a tan, it's called indoor tanning. Indoor tanning uses artificial ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) light, rather than sunlight, to tan the skin. People may feel that a tan makes...

  • Learn why getting a pap test is important.

  • Screening tests help your doctor look for a problem before you have symptoms. This increases your chances of finding the problem early, when it's more treatable. Studies don't show that routine screening for lung cancer is right for most people. But it may help those who have the highest risk for lung cancer—people...

  • Guides you through decision to treat low-risk basal cell skin cancer with surgery or medicated creams. Explains types of surgery and types of creams used. Covers benefits and risks of both. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Learn about the range of emotions you may experience when you have cancer.

  • Learn ways to cope with your feelings when dealing with cancer.

  • Learn how cancer can affect your relationships with others.

  • Learn to check in with yourself and to be aware of your feelings when you have cancer.

  • Learn ways to cope with the stress of having cancer.

  • Learn what an implanted port is and how to care for it at home.

  • Learn what a hysterectomy is and how it's done.

  • Chemo brain is a problem with thinking and memory that can happen during and especially after chemotherapy treatment for cancer. Thinking and memory problems are called cognitive problems. Chemo brain can make it hard for you to think, concentrate,...

  • Get tips on how to adjust to life after finishing cancer treatment.

  • Learn how to find hope when facing advanced cancer.

  • Learn how you can get the support you need when dealing with cancer.

  • Learn how to talk about cancer with your children.

  • Learn how meeting your spiritual needs can help you cope with cancer.

  • Neutropenia (say "noo-truh-PEE-nee-uh") means that your blood has too few white blood cells called neutrophils. White blood cells are an important part of your body's immune system. Neutrophils help protect your body from infection by killing...

  • Learn what to expect when getting chemotherapy.

  • Learn what to expect when getting radiation therapy.

  • Learn how you can feel less tired when you're getting treatment for cancer.

  • Learn ways to manage nausea and loss of appetite from cancer treatments.

  • Get tips on how to stay safe in the sun.

  • Learn what tests are used to check for colon cancer (colorectal cancer) and what the results may mean.

  • Learn how to check your skin for possible signs of skin cancer.

  • Get tips to prepare for and manage hair loss from chemotherapy.

  • Learn what a lumpectomy is and how it is done.

  • Learn how to take care of yourself at home after having a lumpectomy.

  • Learn what a mastectomy is and how it is done.

  • Learn how to take care of yourself at home after having a mastectomy.

  • Learn how to take care of yourself at home after having lymph nodes removed.

  • Hear what other women thought about as they decided whether to have breast reconstruction.

  • A tumor marker is a substance released by cancer cells or by normal cells when cancer is in the body. Tumor markers can be hormones, proteins, enzymes, or other substances. Some conditions that are benign (not cancer) also release tumor markers....

  • Learn what you can do to help with throat pain and eating challenges caused by cancer treatment.

  • Many people take aspirin every day, or every other day, to help prevent heart attack and stroke. But should you take it to prevent cancer? Research has shown that aspirin does help prevent heart attack and stroke in people who are at high risk for those things. But cancer is different. Yes, there are studies...

  • A dilation and curettage (D&C) is a procedure to remove tissue from the lining of the uterus (endometrium). During a D&C, the vagina is spread open. Then the cervix is opened gently so that tissue can be removed, usually with a scraping or suction...

  • Guides people who are at high risk for lung cancer through the decision on whether to have an annual low-dose CT screening. Discusses the benefits and risks of having screening and the risk for getting lung cancer. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

  • When is radiation used for early-stage breast cancer? Radiation therapy is given to most women with early-stage breast cancer who choose breast-conserving surgery such as lumpectomy. Their other surgery option is mastectomy, which removes the whole breast. Many women choose breast-conserving surgery...

  • Learn what a tracheostomy is and how it is done.

  • Learn how to take care of yourself at home after a tracheostomy.

  • Screening tests for colorectal (colon) cancer Screening tests for colorectal cancer look for signs of cancer before you have symptoms. Screening tests for colorectal cancer include: Stool tests that can be done at home. They include: FIT (fecal immunochemical test). This test checks for signs of blood...

  • Discusses stool analysis, a test used to look for bacteria, parasites, or blood in the digestive tract. Covers why and how it is done. Looks at risks. Covers normal and abnormal results.

  • Excision is the removal of a skin cancer along with some of the healthy skin tissue around it (margin). For this procedure, a local anesthetic is used to numb the area. After the cancerous area is removed, the incision is closed with stitches. If the incision is large, sometimes a skin graft or flap is required...

  • Mohs micrographic surgery involves removing a skin cancer one layer at a time and examining these layers under a microscope immediately after they are removed. This procedure allows for a close examination of each layer of skin to detect cancer cells. It also allows a minimal amount of tissue to be removed while making...

  • Guides you through choosing a test to check for colorectal cancer. Looks at symptoms of colorectal cancer. Covers stool tests, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and virtual colonoscopy. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Discusses basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, two types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Covers causes and what increases your risk. Discusses early detection. Covers treatment choices, including chemotherapy and surgery. Offers prevention tips.

  • Guides through decision to have a PSA test to check for prostate cancer. Includes what PSA results tell you and what they do not. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Cryosurgery is the process of destroying a skin cancer (lesion) by freezing it with liquid nitrogen. Liquid nitrogen is applied to the lesion using a cotton applicator stick or an aerosol spray. The skin may first be numbed with a local anesthetic. The liquid nitrogen is applied or sprayed onto the cancer and the...

  • Discusses causes of lung cancer, including smoking and exposure to asbestos or radon. Covers symptoms and how lung cancer is diagnosed. Covers treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Includes info on palliative care.

  • Oral cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in any part of the mouth or lips. Most oral cancers start in the lining of the lips or mouth where you have thin, flat cells called squamous cells. This type of cancer may also be called oral cavity cancer or oropharyngeal cancer. Risk factors (things that increase your...

  • Discusses testing and diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Covers polyps, small growths inside the colon or rectum. Includes when screening tests such as colonoscopy should be done. Discusses treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Offers prevention tips.

  • A bone biopsy is a procedure in which a small sample of bone is taken from the body and looked at under a microscope for cancer, infection, or other bone disorders. The sample of bone can be removed by: Inserting a needle through the skin and directly into the bone ( closed or needle biopsy). A numbing medicine (...

  • Bone marrow aspiration is a procedure that takes out a small amount of bone marrow fluid through a needle. Bone marrow biopsy uses a needle to take out a small amount of bone with the marrow inside it. These samples are then checked under a microscope. The hip bone is the most often used area for these procedures...

  • When melanoma spreads (metastasizes), it usually spreads first into nearby lymph nodes. It can also spread through the bloodstream. Distant metastases of melanoma typically are found in the skin, liver, lungs, bone, and brain. If the melanoma is on...

  • Lymphadenectomy is surgery to remove lymph nodes. This surgery is done to see if cancer has spread to a lymph node. Some lymph nodes are located near the surface of the body, while others are deep in the abdomen or around organs, such as the heart...

  • Discusses radiation therapy, including external, internal, and systemic forms. Covers how it works. Also covers risks of radiation and side effects that may occur right away or later.

  • Surgery to remove (excise) a melanoma removes the entire melanoma along with a border (margin) of normal-appearing skin. The width of the border of normal skin removed depends on the depth of the melanoma. More tissue, usually skin and fat, is also...

  • Discusses melanoma, skin cancer that may be caused by too much sun exposure. Covers symptoms. Discusses how it is diagnosed. Offers prevention tips and covers skin self-exams. Discusses treatment options, including surgery and radiation therapy.

  • Describes colonoscopy, a screening test that examines the lining of the large intestine. Explains that the test is done to look for polyps in the colon or rectum and to check for colorectal cancer. Discusses preparing for the test and how it is done.

  • Provides info on hysterectomy, a surgical treatment for endometriosis, fibroids, or uterine cancer. Describes types of surgery such as vaginal, abdominal, supracervical hysterectomies, and LAVH. Covers risks. Discusses physical and emotional recovery.

  • A stool test is one of many tests used to look for colorectal cancer. These tests may find cancer early, when treatment works better. Colorectal cancer affects the large intestine ( colon) and the rectum. Stool tests include: Fecal immunochemical test and stool DNA (FIT-DNA). Fecal occult blood test...

  • Testicular exam and testicular self-exam are two ways to find lumps or other problems in the testicles. The two testicles, or testes, are the male sex organs. They are located in the scrotum, a pouch below the penis. The testicles make sperm and the male hormone testosterone. Each testicle is about the size and...

  • Discusses surgical treatment of digestive system problems by removing diseased or damaged part of the colon (bowel resection). Includes laparoscopic surgery. Covers what to expect after surgery. Discusses risks.

  • Stem cell transplantation is a potential cure for sickle cell disease. Stem cells can be found in bone marrow. Bone marrow is the substance in the center of your bones that produces red blood cells. A person with sickle cell disease has bone marrow that produces red blood cells with defective hemoglobin S. But if that...

  • Discusses doing regular self-exam to help find breast lumps or changes early. Covers how it is done and what to look for. Also discusses what results mean and when you should see a doctor.

  • People who are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) virus may develop a chronic infection that can lead to cirrhosis. The damage that results increases the risk of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). If you have chronic...

  • Discusses cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) test that can help show if some types of cancer are present. Covers its use to check how well treatment for ovarian cancer is working or to see if ovarian cancer has returned. Covers possible test results.

  • Radiation therapy uses high doses of radiation, such as X-rays, to destroy cancer cells. The radiation damages the genetic material of the cells so that they can't grow. Although radiation damages normal cells as well as cancer cells, the normal cells can repair themselves and function, while the cancer cells cannot...

  • Looks at surgery to remove the prostate gland in those who have prostate cancer. Covers traditional and laparoscopic surgery. Covers how well it works. Looks at risks.

  • Orchiectomy is the removal of the testicles. The penis and the scrotum, the pouch of skin that holds the testicles, are left intact. An orchiectomy is done to stop most of the body's production of testosterone, which prostate cancer usually needs in order to continue growing. Simple orchiectomy is the removal of both...

  • Provides info on an initial diagnosis. Discusses diagnostic tests, including PSA test and digital rectal exam. Covers symptoms common to prostate cancer and other conditions. Discusses treatment with active surveillance, surgery, or radiation. Also offers prevention tips.

  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the tail. The...

  • An adult central nervous system tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain and/or spinal cord. There are many types of brain and spinal cord tumors. The tumors are formed by the abnormal growth of cells and may begin in different parts of the brain or spinal cord. Together, the brain and...

  • Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare diseases in which abnormal trophoblast cells grow inside the uterus after conception. In gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a tumor develops inside the uterus from tissue that forms after conception (the joining of sperm and egg). This tissue is made of...

  • Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys. There are two kidneys...

  • Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in melanocytes (cells that color the skin). The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but...

  • Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the body but the place the cancer began is not known. Cancer can form in any tissue of the body. The primary cancer (the cancer that first formed) can spread to other parts of the body. This process is called metastasis...

  • Lymphedema is the build-up of fluid in soft body tissues when the lymph system is damaged or blocked. Lymphedema occurs when the lymph system is damaged or blocked. Fluid builds up in soft body tissues and causes swelling. It is a common problem that may be caused by cancer and cancer treatment. Lymphedema usually...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Nausea and vomiting are serious side effects of cancer therapy. Nausea and vomiting are side effects of cancer therapy and affect most patients who have chemotherapy. Radiation therapy to the brain, gastrointestinal tract, or liver also cause nausea and vomiting. Nausea is an unpleasant feeling in the back of the throat...

  • Pruritus is an itchy feeling that makes you want to scratch your skin. It may occur without a rash or skin lesions. Pruritus sometimes feels like pain because the signals for itching and pain travel along the same nerve pathways. Scratching may cause breaks in the skin, bleeding, and infection. If your skin feels itchy...

  • Depression is different from normal sadness. Depression is not simply feeling sad. Depression is a disorder with specific symptoms that can be diagnosed and treated. For every 10 patients diagnosed with cancer, about 2 patients become depressed. The numbers of men and women affected are about the same. A person...

  • Fatigue is the most common side effect of cancer treatment. Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and biologic therapy can cause fatigue in cancer patients. Fatigue is also a common symptom of some types of cancer. Patients describe fatigue as feeling tired, weak, worn-out, heavy, slow, or that they...

  • Getting enough sleep is needed for both physical and mental health. Sleep is an important part of physical and mental health. While we sleep, the brain and body do a number of important jobs that help us stay in good health and function at our best. Getting the sleep we need: Improves our ability to learn, remember, and...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Delirium is a confused mental state that can occur in patients who have cancer. Delirium is a confused mental state that can occur in patients who have cancer, especially advanced cancer. Patients with delirium have problems with the following: Attention. Thinking. Awareness. Behavior. Emotions. Judgement. Memory...

  • Hot flashes and night sweats are common in cancer patients and survivors. A hot flash is a sudden warm feeling over your face, neck, and chest that may cause you to sweat and your face to turn red. Sweating is your body's way of lowering body temperature by causing heat loss through your skin. Hot flashes combined...

  • People cope with the loss of a loved one in different ways. Most people who experience grief will cope well. Others will have severe grief and may need treatment. There are many things that can affect the grief process of someone who has lost a loved one to cancer. They include: The personality of the person who is...

  • Cancer-related post-traumatic stress (PTS) is a lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but not as severe. Patients have a range of normal reactions when they hear they have cancer. These include: Repeated frightening thoughts. Being distracted or overexcited. Trouble sleeping. Feeling detached from oneself or...

  • The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is part of the digestive system, which processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) in foods that are eaten and helps pass waste material out of the body. The GI tract includes the stomach and intestines (bowels). The stomach is a J-shaped organ in...

  • Cancer, cancer treatment, or diagnostic tests may cause you pain. Pain is one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients. Pain can be caused by cancer, cancer treatment, or a combination of factors. Tumors, surgery, intravenous chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, supportive care therapies such as...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors form from germ cells in parts of the body other than the brain. A germ cell is a type of cell that forms as a fetus (unborn baby) develops. These cells later become sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries. This summary is about germ cell tumors that form in parts of the body...

  • Oral complications are common in cancer patients, especially those with head and neck cancer. Complications are new medical problems that occur during or after a disease, procedure, or treatment and that make recovery harder. The complications may be side effects of the disease or treatment, or they may have other...

  • Rare cancers of childhood are cancers not usually seen in children. Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. Since 1975, the number of deaths from childhood cancer has decreased by more than half. The cancers listed in this summary are so...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs that are found in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body when you breathe in and take out carbon dioxide when you breathe out. Each lung has sections called...

  • Osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the bone are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in bone. Osteosarcoma usually starts in osteoblasts, which are a type of bone cell that becomes new bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is most common in adolescents. It commonly forms in the ends of the long...

  • Colon cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the colon. The colon is part of the body's digestive system. The digestive system removes and processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from foods and helps pass waste material out of the...

  • Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe has many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and...

  • Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body as you breathe in. They release carbon dioxide, a waste product of the body's cells, as you breathe out...

  • Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the...

  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that forms in the lymph system. The lymph system is part of the immune system. It helps protect the body from infection and disease. The lymph system is made up of the following: Lymph...

  • Rectal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the rectum. The rectum is part of the body's digestive system. The digestive system takes in nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from foods and helps pass waste material out of the body. The...

  • Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The esophagus is the hollow, muscular tube that moves food and liquid from the throat to the stomach. The wall of the esophagus is made up of several layers of tissue, including mucous membrane, muscle, and connective...

  • Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the cervix. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in...

  • Childhood brain stem glioma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain stem. Gliomas are tumors formed from glial cells. Glial cells in the brain hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to nerve cells, and help protect nerve cells from disease, such as...

  • Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissue covering the ovary or lining the fallopian tube or peritoneum. The ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system. They are in the pelvis, one on each side of...

  • Endometrial cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the endometrium. The endometrium is the lining of the uterus, a hollow, muscular organ in a woman's pelvis. The uterus is where a fetus grows. In most nonpregnant women, the uterus is about 3 inches long. The lower, narrow end...

  • Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a...

  • Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose. The pharynx is a hollow tube about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus...

  • Ovarian germ cell tumor is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the germ (egg) cells of the ovary. Germ cell tumors begin in the reproductive cells (egg or sperm) of the body. Ovarian germ cell tumors usually occur in teenage girls or young women and most often affect just one ovary. The ovaries are a...

  • Ovarian low malignant potential tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissue covering the ovary. Ovarian low malignant potential tumors have abnormal cells that may become cancer, but usually do not. This disease usually remains in the ovary. When disease is found in one ovary, the other ovary should...

  • Male breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in men. Breast cancer may occur in men at any age, but it usually occurs in men between 60 and 70 years of age. Male breast cancer makes up less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer. The...

  • Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe has many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and...

  • Childhood ependymoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. The brain controls vital functions such as memory and learning, emotion, and the senses (hearing, sight, smell, taste, and touch). The spinal cord is made up of bundles of nerve fibers that connect the...

  • Adult primary liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver. The liver is one of the largest organs in the body. It has two lobes and fills the upper right side of the abdomen inside the rib cage. Three of the many important functions of the liver are: To filter harmful...

  • Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles. The testicles are 2 egg-shaped glands located inside the scrotum (a sac of loose skin that lies directly below the penis). The testicles are held within the scrotum by the spermatic cord, which also contains...

  • Uterine sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the muscles of the uterus or other tissues that support the uterus. The uterus is part of the female reproductive system. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped organ in the pelvis, where a fetus grows. The cervix is at the lower, narrow end of the...

  • Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; also called acute lymphocytic leukemia) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is...

  • Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes abnormal myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell), red blood cells, or platelets. Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated. It is...

  • Adult Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. Adult Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops in the lymph system. The lymph system is part of the immune system. It helps protect the body from infection and disease. The lymph system is made up of the following...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Screening is looking for signs of disease, such as breast cancer, before a person has symptoms. The goal of screening tests is to find cancer at an early stage when it can be treated and may be cured. Sometimes a screening test finds cancer that is very small or very slow growing. These cancers are unlikely to cause...

  • A childhood brain or spinal cord tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain or spinal cord. There are many types of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. The tumors are formed by the abnormal growth of cells and may begin in different areas of the brain or spinal cord. The tumors may...

  • Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops in the lymph system. The lymph system is part of the immune system. It helps protect the body from infection and disease. The lymph system is made up of the...

  • Childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes a large number of abnormal blood cells. Childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. AML is also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and...

  • Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many immature lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (also called ALL or acute lymphocytic leukemia) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This type of cancer usually gets...

  • Childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. Childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that forms in the lymph system, which is part of the body's immune system. It helps protect the body from infection and disease. The lymph system is made up of...

  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (also called CLL) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow that usually gets worse slowly. CLL is one of the most common types of leukemia in adults. It often...

  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in children. Anatomy...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Bile duct cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the bile ducts. A network of tubes, called ducts, connects the liver, gallbladder, and small intestine. This network begins in the liver where many small ducts collect bile (a fluid made by the liver to break down fats during digestion). The...

  • Hairy cell leukemia is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Hairy cell leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This rare type of leukemia gets worse slowly or does not get worse at all. The disease is called hairy cell leukemia because the leukemia...

  • Hypopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the hypopharynx. The hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx (throat). The pharynx is a hollow tube about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose, goes down the neck, and ends at the top of the trachea (windpipe) and...

  • Intraocular melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the eye. Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the "white of the eye") and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer...

  • Laryngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the larynx. The larynx is a part of the throat, between the base of the tongue and the trachea. The larynx contains the vocal cords, which vibrate and make sound when air is directed against them. The sound echoes through the pharynx...

  • Lip and oral cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips or mouth. The oral cavity includes the following: The front two thirds of the tongue. The gingiva (gums). The buccal mucosa (the lining of the inside of the cheeks). The floor (bottom) of the mouth under the tongue. The hard...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary is a disease in which squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck and it is not known where the cancer first formed in the body. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells found in tissues that form the surface of the skin and the lining of body cavities such as...

  • A gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor is cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is part of the body's digestive system. It helps to digest food, takes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from food to be used by the body and...

  • Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Normally, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that become mature blood stem cells over time. A blood stem cell may become a myeloid stem cell or a...

  • Neuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in neuroblasts (immature nerve tissue) in the adrenal glands, neck, chest, or spinal cord. Neuroblastoma often begins in the nerve tissue of the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper abdomen. The...

  • Oropharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the oropharynx. The oropharynx is the middle part of the pharynx (throat), behind the mouth. The pharynx is a hollow tube about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose and ends where the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (tube...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Paranasal sinuses"Paranasal" means near the nose. The para sinuses are hollow, air-filled spaces in the bones around the nose. The sinuses are lined with cells...

  • Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland. The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized organs found in the neck near the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH or parathormone). PTH helps the body use and store calcium to...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Retinoblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the retina. The retina is made of nerve tissue that lines the inside wall of the back of the eye. It receives light and converts the light into signals that travel down the optic nerve to the brain. The brain decodes the signals so that...

  • Salivary gland cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the salivary glands. The salivary glands make saliva and release it into the mouth. Saliva has enzymes that help digest food and antibodies that help protect against infections of the mouth and throat. There are 3 pairs of...

  • Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin. The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the trachea (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right lobe and a left lobe. The isthmus, a thin piece of tissue, connects the two lobes. A healthy...

  • Adult soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the soft tissues of the body. The soft tissues of the body include the muscles, tendons (bands of fiber that connect muscles to bones), fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissues around joints. Adult soft tissue sarcomas can...

  • Childhood liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver. The liver is one of the largest organs in the body. It has two lobes and fills the upper right side of the abdomen inside the rib cage. Three of the many important functions of the liver are: To filter harmful...

  • Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. The anus is the end of the large intestine, below the rectum, through which stool (solid waste) leaves the body. The anus is formed partly from the outer skin layers of the body and partly from the intestine. Two ring-like...

  • Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which the body makes too many plasma cells. Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes (B cells), a type of white blood cell that is made in the bone marrow. Normally, when bacteria or viruses enter the body, some of the B cells will change into plasma cells. The plasma cells make...

  • Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the vagina. The vagina is the canal leading from the cervix (the opening of the uterus) to the outside of the body. At birth, a baby passes out of the body through the vagina (also called the birth canal). Anatomy of the female reproductive system...

  • Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in muscle tissue. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of sarcoma. Sarcoma is cancer of soft tissue (such as muscle), connective tissue (such as tendon or cartilage), or bone. Rhabdomyosarcoma usually begins in muscles that are attached to bones and...

  • Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body. Soft tissues of the body connect, support, and surround other body parts and organs. The soft tissue include the following: Fat. A mix of bone and cartilage. Fibrous tissue. Muscles. Nerves. Tendons (bands of...

  • Anxiety and distress can affect the quality of life of patients with cancer and their families. Patients living with cancer feel many different emotions, including anxiety and distress. Anxiety is unease, fear, and dread caused by stress. Distress is emotional, mental, social, or spiritual suffering. Patients who are...

  • Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the chest or abdomen. Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the pleura (the thin layer of tissue that lines the chest cavity and covers the lungs) or the peritoneum (the thin layer of...

  • Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the thymus. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma, also called thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), are two types of rare cancers that can form in the cells that cover the outside surface of the thymus. The thymus is a small organ that lies in the...

  • Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that lies just under the liver in the upper abdomen. The...

  • Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of tissue. Paragangliomas form in nerve tissue in the adrenal glands and near certain blood vessels and nerves. Paragangliomas that form in the adrenal glands are called pheochromocytomas. Paragangliomas that form outside the adrenal glands...

  • Gastric cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The stomach is a J-shaped organ in the upper abdomen. It is part of the digestive system, which processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) in foods that are eaten and helps pass waste...

  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors form from developing sperm or egg cells that travel from the gonads to other parts of the body."Extragonadal" means outside of the gonads (sex organs). When cells that are meant to form sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries travel to other parts of the body, they may grow...

  • Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each...

  • Good nutrition is important for cancer patients. Nutrition is a process in which food is taken in and used by the body for growth, to keep the body healthy, and to replace tissue. Good nutrition is important for good health. Eating the right kinds of foods before, during, and after cancer treatment can help the patient...

  • Religious and spiritual values are important to patients coping with cancer. Studies have shown that religious and spiritual values are important to Americans. Most American adults say that they believe in God and that their religious beliefs affect how they live their lives. However, people have different ideas about...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the renal pelvis and ureter. The renal pelvis is the top part of the ureter. The ureter is a long tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the...

  • Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Normally, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that become mature blood cells over time. Anatomy of the bone. The bone is made up of compact bone, spongy bone...

  • Late effects are health problems that occur months or years after treatment has ended. The treatment of cancer may cause health problems for childhood cancer survivors months or years after successful treatment has ended. Cancer treatments may harm the body's organs, tissues, or bones and cause health problems...

  • Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature or become healthy blood cells. In a healthy person, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that become mature blood cells over time. Anatomy of the bone. The bone is made up of compact bone...

  • Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells. Myelodysplastic /myeloproliferative neoplasms are diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Anatomy of the bone. The bone is made up of compact bone, spongy bone, and bone marrow. Compact bone...

  • Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest, pelvis, spine, or skull. Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of...

  • Childhood kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the kidney. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney...

  • Vulvar cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the vulva. Vulvar cancer forms in a woman's external genitalia. The vulva includes: Inner and outer lips of the vagina. Clitoris (sensitive tissue between the lips). Opening of the vagina and its glands. Mons pubis (the rounded...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. In women, the urethra is about 1½ inches long and is just above the vagina. In men, the urethra is about 8 inches long, and goes through the...

  • Penile cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the penis. The penis is a rod-shaped male reproductive organ that passes sperm and urine from the body. It contains two types of erectile tissue (spongy tissue with blood vessels that fill with blood to make an erection): Corpora...

  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin. Merkel cells are found in the top layer of the skin. These cells are very close to the nerve endings that receive the sensation of touch. Merkel cell carcinoma, also called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin or trabecular...

  • Kaposi sarcoma is a disease in which malignant lesions (cancer) can form in the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and other organs. Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that causes lesions (abnormal tissue) to grow in the skin; the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, and throat; lymph nodes; or other organs. The lesions...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. Hydrazine sulfate is a chemical compound that has been studied as a treatment for cancer and certain side effects caused by cancer (see Question 1). Hydrazine sulfate may block the tumor from taking in glucose...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. Cancell is a trademarked name of a liquid mixture long promoted as a treatment for people with cancer and other diseases (see Question 1). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has listed the ingredients...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. Cartilage is a type of tough, flexible connective tissue (see Question 1). Cartilage from cows (bovine cartilage) and sharks has been studied as a treatment for people with cancer and other medical conditions...

  • Coenzyme Q10 (known as CoQ10) is a compound that is made in the body. The body uses it for cell growth and to protect cells from damage (see Question 1). Clinical trials have been limited to small sizes. It is not clear if the benefits reported were from the CoQ10 therapy (see Question 4). CoQ10 may not mix safely with...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. Essiac and Flor Essence are herbal tea mixtures that are sold worldwide as health tonics or herbal dietary supplements (see Question 1). Essiac was first promoted as a cancer treatment in the 1920s. Flor Essence...

  • Laetrile is another name for amygdalin. Amygdalin is found in the pits of many fruits, raw nuts, and plants (see Question 1). Laetrile is given by mouth as a pill or by intravenous injection (see Question 2). Laetrile has shown little anticancer effect in clinical studies (see Question 4). Laetrile is not approved by...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. The main ingredient of 714-X is camphor, which comes from the wood and bark of the camphor tree (see Question 1). It is claimed that 714-X helps the immune system fight cancer (see Question 3). No study of 714-X...

  • Mistletoe is a semiparasitic plant that grows on several types of trees such as apple, oak, pine, and elm (see Question 1). Mistletoe is one of the most widely studied complementary and alternative medicine therapies in people with cancer. In Europe, mistletoe extracts are among the most prescribed drugs for patients...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. The Gerson therapy is a complex regimen that has been used to treat people with cancer and other diseases (see Question 1). The key parts of the Gerson therapy are a strict diet, dietary supplements, and enemas...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. The Gonzalez regimen, developed by Dr. Nicholas Gonzalez, involves taking pancreatic enzymes thought to have anticancer activity. The regimen also includes prescribed diets, nutritional supplements, and coffee...

  • Cancer screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. Screening tests can help find cancer at an early stage, before symptoms appear. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat or cure. By the time symptoms appear, the cancer may have grown and spread. This can make the...

  • Acupuncture applies needles, heat, pressure, and other treatments to one or more places on the skin known as acupuncture points (see Question 1). Clinical trials report the use of acupuncture relieves nausea and vomiting from anticancer therapies (see Question 5). Other trials have studied the use of acupuncture in...

  • Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils from plants (flowers, herbs, or trees) as therapy to improve physical, mental, and spiritual well-being (see Question 1). Aromatherapy may be used with other complementary treatments, such as massage or acupuncture, as well as with standard medical treatments to manage symptoms...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only."Selected Vegetables" and "Sun's Soup " are different mixtures of vegetables and herbs that are being studied as treatments for people with cancer (see Question 1). Dried and frozen forms...

  • Milk thistle is a plant whose fruit and seeds are used for liver and bile duct disorders (see Question 1). Milk thistle is usually taken in capsules or tablets (see Question 2). Studies of milk thistle have been done in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and head and neck cancer (see Question...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. PC-SPES is a mixture of 8 herbs that was sold as a dietary supplement to keep the prostate healthy (see Question 1). Some batches of PC-SPES were found to contain prescription medicines. It was taken off the...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. Antineoplastons are chemical compounds found in urine and blood. Antineoplastons are made in a laboratory when used for research. (See Question 1.) No randomized, controlled trials of antineoplastons have been...

  • Medulloblastoma and other central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors may begin in embryonic (fetal) cells that remain in the brain after birth. These tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. Medulloblastoma and other CNS embryonal tumors may be malignant...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Childhood craniopharyngiomas are benign brain tumors found near the pituitary gland. Childhood craniopharyngiomas are rare tumors usually found near the pituitary gland (a pea-sized organ at the bottom of the brain that controls other glands) and the hypothalamus (a small cone-shaped organ connected to the pituitary...

  • Childhood astrocytomas are tumors that start in the star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. An astrocyte is a type of glial cell. Glial cells hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to them, and help protect them from disease, such as infection. Gliomas are tumors that form from glial cells. An astrocytoma...

  • Central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain. Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children aged three years...

  • The end of life may be months, weeks, days, or hours. It is a time when many decisions about treatment and care are made for patients with cancer. It is important for families and healthcare providers to know the patient's wishes ahead of time and to talk with the patient openly about end-of-life plans. This will...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • A pituitary tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the pituitary gland. Pituitary tumors form in the pituitary gland, a pea-sized organ in the center of the brain, just above the back of the nose. The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master endocrine gland" because it makes hormones that...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Note: Information about growth and development and school and learning issues will be added to this summary in the future. The goal of supportive care is to improve the quality of life for young cancer patients and their families. Most children with cancer can be cured. Every patient is different and the type of cancer...

  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a type of cancer that can damage tissue or cause lesions to form in one or more places in the body. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare cancer that begins in LCH cells. LCH cells are a type of dendritic cell which fights infection. Sometimes there are mutations (changes) in LCH...

  • Good communication between patients, family caregivers, and the health care team is very important in cancer care. Good communication between patients with cancer, family caregivers, and the health care team helps improve patients' well-being and quality of life. Communicating about concerns and decision making is...

  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is part of the body's digestive system. It helps to digest food and takes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from food so they...

  • This summary is about the roles, needs, and burdens of informal caregivers who are caring for a person with cancer. Caregivers are either formal or informal. An informal caregiver is usually a relative or friend who may or may not live in the same house as the person they are caring for. A formal caregiver, such as a...

  • Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is a plant grown in many parts of the world. It makes a resin (thick substance) that contains compounds called cannabinoids (see Question 1). By federal law, possessing Cannabis is illegal in the United States outside of approved research settings. However, a growing number of states...

  • Childhood central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors form from germ cells. Germ cells are special types of cells that are present as the fetus (unborn baby) develops. These cells usually become sperm in the testicles or unfertilized eggs in the ovaries as the child matures. Most germ cell tumors form in the testes or...

  • Men in the United States get prostate cancer more than any other type of cancer except skin cancer. It occurs mainly in older men. In the United States, about 1 in every 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime. Most men with prostate cancer do not die of it. Complementary and alternative...

  • Vitamin C is a nutrient found in food and dietary supplements. It is an antioxidant and also plays a key role in making collagen (see Question 1). High-dose vitamin C may be taken by mouth or given by an intravenous (IV) infusion (through a vein into the bloodstream). When taken by IV infusion, vitamin C can reach...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • When you learn you have advanced cancer, you're faced with many decisions about your end-of-life care. Talking about these decisions early can make it easier on you and your family later. The following are some questions you may want to think about: What's important to you during this time? Is it most...

  • Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasal cavity and throat. Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is made of the nasal cavity (inside of the nose) and top part of the throat...

  • Esthesioneuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the upper nasal cavity and base of the skull. Esthesioneuroblastoma begins in the olfactory nerve endings in the upper part of the nasal cavity. The olfactory nerves (sense of smell) pass through the many tiny holes in the bone...

  • Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the trachea (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right lobe and a left lobe. The isthmus is a thin piece of tissue that connects the two lobes. It...

  • Oral cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the mouth. The oral cavity includes the following: The front two thirds of the tongue. The gingiva (gums). The buccal mucosa (the lining of the inside of the cheeks). The floor (bottom) of the mouth under the tongue. The hard palate...

  • Salivary gland cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the salivary glands. The salivary glands make saliva and release it into the mouth. Saliva has enzymes that help digest food and antibodies that help protect against infections of the mouth and throat. There are 3 pairs of...

  • Laryngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the larynx. The larynx is a part of the throat, between the base of the tongue and the trachea (windpipe). The larynx contains the vocal cords, which vibrate and make sound when air is directed against them. The sound echoes through...

  • Childhood midline tract carcinoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the respiratory tract or other places along the middle of the body. The respiratory tract is made up of the nose, throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Midline tract carcinoma may also form in other places along the middle of...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe has many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and...

  • Tracheobronchial tumor is a type of childhood lung cancer that forms in the lining of the trachea and bronchi. Tracheobronchial tumors begin in the inside lining of the trachea or bronchi. Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are benign and occur in the trachea (windpipe) or large bronchi (large airways of the...

  • Pleuropulmonary blastoma is a type of childhood lung cancer that forms in the tissues of the lung and pleura or the organs between the lungs. Pleuropulmonary blastomas form in the tissue of the lung and pleura (tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inside of the chest). They can also form in the organs between the...

  • Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The esophagus is the hollow, muscular tube that moves food and liquid from the throat to the stomach. The wall of the esophagus is made up of several layers of tissue, including mucous membrane, muscle, and connective...

  • Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the thymus. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are two types of cancer that can form in the cells that cover the outside surface of the thymus. The thymus is a small organ in the upper chest under the breastbone. It is part of the lymph system...

  • Childhood cardiac tumors, which may be benign or malignant, form in the heart. Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Benign heart tumors that may appear in children include the following: Rhabdomyoma: A tumor that forms in muscle made up of long fibers. Myxoma: A tumor that may be part of an...

  • Mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the thin layer of tissue that covers organs in the chest or abdomen. Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in one or more of the following: Pleura: A thin layer of tissue that lines the chest cavity and covers...

  • Cognition is the mental process of learning and understanding. Cognition is the process of gaining knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. The thinking process includes being able to do the following: Focus on the important information, thoughts, and actions. Pay attention to a task or...

  • Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each...

  • Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the stomach. The stomach is a J-shaped organ in the upper abdomen. It is part of the digestive system, which processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from foods that are eaten and helps pass...

  • Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the...

  • Colorectal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the colon or the rectum. The colon is part of the body's digestive system. The digestive system removes and processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from foods and helps pass waste...

  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the wall of the stomach or intestines. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) usually begin in cells in the tissues of the wall of the stomach or intestines. These cells, called interstitial cells of Cajal, help food...

  • Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscle wall that allows it to get bigger or smaller. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They...

  • Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles. The testicles are two egg-shaped glands located inside the scrotum (a sac of loose skin that lies directly below the penis). The testicles are held within the scrotum by the spermatic cord, which also contains...

  • Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the ovary. The ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system. They are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). Each ovary is about the size and shape of...

  • Cervical and vaginal cancers are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the cervix or the vagina. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a baby grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). The vagina is the canal leading...

  • Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal gland. Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal gland. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper abdomen. Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland is the adrenal...

  • Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in melanocytes (cells that color the skin). The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but...

  • Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin. The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main...

  • Intraocular melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the eye. Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the "white of the eye") and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer...

  • Carcinoma of unknown primary is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the body but the place the cancer began is not known. Cancer can form in any tissue in the body. The first cancer to form is called the primary cancer. The process of cancer cells spreading to other parts of the body is called...

  • A painful sore or ulcer inside your mouth may make it hard to eat and drink. Be sure to let your doctor know you are having mouth sores. You may need to have your medicines adjusted. And try some of the following home treatment measures to help ease...

  • Skin cancer can be cured if found and treated early. Your doctor may check your skin during your annual exam. Or your doctor may suggest a skin exam more often, especially if you have: Familial atypical mole and melanoma (FAM-M) syndrome. This is an inherited tendency to develop melanoma. Examine your skin every...

  • Discusses breast reconstruction surgery done after mastectomy. Covers two ways of doing the surgery: pedicle flap and free flap. Looks at types of flap surgery: TRAM, latissimus dorsi, DIEP, SIEA, TUG, and gluteal free. Covers what to expect after surgery and risks.

  • Breast implants are a way to recreate the shape of a breast after part or all of the breast is removed (mastectomy) because of cancer. There are several types of implants that are available. Some of the most common implants have a soft silicone...

  • Guides through decision to have breast reconstruction after a mastectomy. Describes what options are available for breast reconstruction and how it is done. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Guides you through choosing between radiation therapy and surgery (prostatectomy) to treat prostate cancer. Lists reasons for and against radiation therapy. Also lists reasons for and against surgery. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Screening for prostate cancer—checking for signs of the disease when there are no symptoms—is done with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. In the United States, about 12 out of 100 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer sometime during their lifetime. But most men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer don't...

  • Thyroid surgery is used to treat thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, and hyperthyroidism. During this procedure, part or all of the thyroid gland is removed. During surgery, an incision is made in the skin. The muscle and other tissues are pulled aside to expose the thyroid gland.

  • The side effects of chemotherapy, sometimes called chemo, depend mainly on the medicines you receive. As with other types of treatment, side effects vary from person to person. In general, chemotherapy affects rapidly growing and dividing cells. These include: Blood cells. Blood cells fight infection, cause the blood...

  • What is lymphedema? Lymphedema is a collection of fluid that causes swelling (edema) in the arms and legs. What causes lymphedema? One of the causes of lymphedema is surgery to remove lymph nodes, usually during cancer treatment. Normally, lymph nodes filter fluid as it flows through them, trapping bacteria, viruses...

  • Whether you have a mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) for breast cancer, your doctors need to know whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. Lymph node involvement increases the likelihood that cancer cells have spread through the bloodstream to other parts of the body. Women with some forms of...

  • Discusses cancer of the lining of the uterus (endometrium). Covers having too much estrogen as most common cause. Discusses treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, and hormone and radiation therapy.

  • Cryosurgery freezes the prostate gland to kill prostate cancer. It is sometimes a choice for treating early prostate cancer. Cryosurgery may also be used for treating prostate cancer that has come back. For cryosurgery, a number of probes or needles are stuck through the skin into the prostate gland. Transrectal...

  • Expectant management, or observation, is sometimes used to manage complications of a high-risk pregnancy. Depending on the severity of your preeclampsia, you may need expectant management at home or in the hospital. Expectant management at home requires reduced activity and careful checking and daily recording of...

  • On rare occasions, cancer coincides with pregnancy. Because the medicines and radiation used for treating cancer can be dangerous to a fetus, a pregnant woman and her doctors must weigh a number of factors when planning her care, including: The fetus's gestational age. The type and location of the cancer...

  • Some treatments for cancer can cause infertility in both men and women. Also, cancer treatment in children may affect their future fertility. Infertility from cancer treatment may be temporary or permanent. Whether or not your cancer treatment will...

  • Provides info on breast cancer for women who have been diagnosed for the first time. Discusses symptoms and how breast cancer is diagnosed. Covers mammogram and clinical breast exam. Discusses treatment options, including mastectomy and chemotherapy.

  • Home treatment may be all that is needed to treat mild nausea caused by cancer or the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. If you are having chemotherapy, your doctor can give you medicines to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting. Be sure to tell your doctor if you continue to have problems after your...

  • Not all forms of cancer or cancer treatment cause pain. If pain occurs, many treatments are available to relieve it. If your doctor has given you instructions or medicines to treat pain, be sure to follow them. Home treatment may help to reduce pain and improve your physical and mental well-being. Be sure to discuss...

  • Home treatment may be all that is needed to treat diarrhea caused by cancer or the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Be sure to follow any instructions and take any medicines your doctor has given you to treat diarrhea. Check with your doctor before using any nonprescription medicines for your diarrhea...

  • Home treatment may be all that is needed to treat constipation caused by cancer, pain medicine, inactivity, or the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. If your doctor has given you instructions or medicines to treat constipation, be...

  • Breast cancer is the abnormal growth of the cells that line the ducts and lobes of the breast. When breast cancer has spread outside the ducts or lobes into normal breast tissue, it is said to be invasive. The main types of invasive breast cancer are: Ductal carcinoma, which is cancer that begins in...

  • Discusses sleep problems caused by cancer or side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Offers tips like get daily exercise and use a sleep mask and earplugs to improve sleep. Warns to check with your doctor before taking sleep medicine.

  • Fatigue is a sense of tiredness that doesn't seem to go away, even with rest or sleep. It often happens along with other symptoms, such as pain or poor sleep. You may feel fatigued during cancer treatments, right after treatments, or even for months after treatment. Even as your cancer treatments are working and you...

  • Hair loss can be emotionally distressing. Not all cancer treatments cause hair loss, and some people have only mild thinning that is noticeable only to them. Your doctor will be able to tell you whether hair loss is an expected side effect of your treatment. Hair loss from chemotherapy Chemotherapy can cause hair...

  • How you feel about your body (your body image) may change when you have cancer. It is common to feel angry, frustrated, or disappointed after cancer surgery or during treatment for cancer. And it may be hard to adjust. Changes that may affect a person's body image include: Losing a breast because of breast cancer...

  • Guides you through decision about which surgery to have for early-stage breast cancer. Lists benefits and risks of both mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Discusses non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cancer of the cells of the lymph system. Covers what causes it and symptoms. Covers treatment, including chemotherapy. Offers home treatment tips to help manage side effects like diarrhea and fatigue.

  • Watchful waiting (surveillance) is a period in the treatment of some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in which you are not having treatment. It does not mean that your doctors are giving up or refusing to give you treatment. During this time, you...

  • Most stem cells are in your bone marrow. You also have some in your blood that circulate from your bone marrow. Bone marrow stem cells turn into red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets to help your body stay healthy. If your bone marrow is...

  • Eating well when you have cancer means eating enough to prevent weight loss and keep your strength up. Cancer and cancer treatments can make it harder for your body to get what it needs from the food you eat. And your body needs good nutrition to...

  • Radiation therapy is the use of high-dose X-rays to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy is often used for the treatment of cancer, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin lymphoma, and all types of leukemia. Radiation therapy may be used...

  • Discusses recurrent breast cancer. Covers symptoms and tests that diagnose cancer that has come back or spread. Discusses treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment tips for drug side effects or pain. Covers addressing emotional needs.

  • Discusses cancer pain management. Discusses causes such as tumor pressing on bones or nerves. Covers types of cancer pain. Discusses treatments with medicines, surgery, or radiation.

  • A clinical breast examination (CBE) is a physical examination of the breast done by a health professional. Clinical breast examinations are used along with mammograms to check women for breast cancer. Clinical breast examinations are also used to check for other breast problems. A clinical breast examination may be...

  • What is leukemia? Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. It starts in the bone marrow, the soft tissue inside most bones. Bone marrow is where blood cells are made. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of your body. Platelets...

  • Discusses colon and rectal cancers that return after treatment or that spread to other parts of the body. Looks at symptoms. Discusses treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

  • Liver resection is the surgical removal of part of the liver. This operation is for some types of liver cancer and for certain cases of metastatic colorectal cancer. Up to half of your liver can be removed as long as the rest is healthy. During a liver resection, the part of your liver that contains cancer is removed...

  • Discusses causes and symptoms of thyroid cancer. Covers factors that increase risk, including exposure to radiation. Discusses diagnosis and treatment with surgery, radioactive iodine, and thyroid hormone therapy.

  • There are different types of thyroid cancer. They are based on what the cells look like under a microscope. Your treatment will depend on which type of thyroid cancer you have. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). This is the most common type of thyroid cancer. PTC starts in cells called follicular cells and...

  • Discusses use of radiation therapy to kill cancer cells or control cancer pain. Covers brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy, two ways radiation is delivered. Discusses risks and side effects.

  • What is a stem cell transplant? Most stem cells are in your bone marrow. You also have some that circulate from your marrow into your blood. Bone marrow stem cells turn into red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets to help your body stay healthy. If your bone marrow is damaged or destroyed, it can no longer...

  • Breast cancer in men develops in the small amount of breast tissue found behind a man's nipple. It is often a type called invasive ductal carcinoma. Although the exact cause of breast cancer is not known, most experts agree that some men have a...

  • Experts agree that mammograms are the best screening test for people at average risk of breast cancer. But they don't all agree on the age at which screening should start. And they don't agree on whether it's better to be screened every year or every two years. Here are some of the recommendations from experts...

  • Guides you through decision to use chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Lists reasons for and against chemotherapy. Covers side effects. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Discusses virtual colonoscopy (computed tomographic colonography). Covers why and how it is done. Explains how it differs from a regular colonoscopy. Covers things to think about when choosing virtual colonoscopy.

  • Asbestos is a substance that was used in building materials. The substance can enter the body by being inhaled or swallowed. The substance attaches to the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Contact with asbestos over time has been...

  • Looks at lung surgery (called thoracotomy) to treat lung cancer. Covers how it is done and what to expect after surgery. Covers its risks and how well it works. Offers illustrations on three types of surgery: wedge resection, lobectomy, and pneumonectomy.

  • Discusses testing, diagnosis, and treatment of cervical cancer. Explains how most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or HPV. Explains it is usually found through screening. Covers prevention with vaccine.

  • Discusses cause and symptoms of ovarian cancer. Covers diagnosis, including discovery during pelvic exam or ultrasound. Looks at treatment with chemotherapy or surgery, or both. Discusses chances of getting ovarian cancer.

  • Discusses surgery to remove the uterus to treat ovarian cancer. Covers what is done and what to expect after surgery. Looks at emotional concerns. Covers risks.

  • Discusses blood test that can tell you if you carry rare changed genes that can cause colon cancer, also called colorectal cancer. Covers familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Looks at colonoscopy screening. Discusses risks. Includes genetic counseling.

  • Myxomas are tumors of connective tissue. They can occur almost anywhere in the body, including the heart. Treatment for a myxoma in the heart depends on many things. These include where the tumor is and if it is blocking blood flow. If the tumor is in the left atrium, surgery might be done to remove it. This can help...

  • Testicular cancer is not common. It is often first discovered by the man himself, or his sex partner, as a lump or an enlarged and swollen testicle. In the early stages of testicular cancer, the lump, which may be about the size of a pea, usually is not painful. Testicular cancer has a high cure rate. Experts have...

  • Excessive exposure to the sun and its ultraviolet (UV) rays can cause skin cancer. You can reduce your risk for skin cancer by: Protecting your skin, and that of your family members, from UV radiation. Performing frequent skin self-examinations. Finding out whether you have an increased risk for melanoma and other...

  • Most nonmelanoma skin cancer can be cured if it is found and treated early. The goal of treatment is to completely remove the cancer. But the method of removal will differ depending on the experience of your doctor and the type of cancer you have. Advantages and disadvantages of common treatments for nonmelanoma skin...

  • Discusses the causes and symptoms of bladder cancer. Covers how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Offers home treatment suggestions to manage side effects like nausea and trouble sleeping.

  • Transurethral resection (TUR) of the bladder is a surgical procedure that is used both to diagnose bladder cancer and to remove cancerous tissue from the bladder. This procedure is also called a TURBT (transurethral resection for bladder tumor). General anesthesia or spinal anesthesia is often used. During TUR surgery...

  • Cystectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the bladder. It is used to treat bladder cancer that has spread into the bladder wall or to treat cancer that has come back (recurred) following initial treatment. Partial cystectomy is the removal of part of the bladder. It is used to treat cancer that...

  • Resection is another name for any operation that removes tissue or part of an organ. Bowel resection for colorectal cancer, also called partial colectomy, removes the tumor. To make sure that only healthy tissue is left, the doctor removes a small amount of colon or rectum tissue on both sides of the tumor. The goal of...

  • After a surgeon has removed the diseased part of your bowel during an operation called a bowel resection, he or she will then sew the two healthy ends of your bowel back together. Sometimes the bowel tissue needs more time to heal before the reattachment, so a temporary colostomy is needed. Sometimes the entire lower...

  • Discusses prostate cancer that has spread or come back. Discusses symptoms. Covers treatment choices and factors that will affect them, including age, PSA level, Gleason score, and how far cancer has spread. Covers end-of-life issues.

  • Most men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer have localized cancer, which means that the cancer hasn't spread outside the prostate. Some men who have localized prostate cancer choose active surveillance, which allows them to avoid or delay having surgery or radiation. Active surveillance is an option for men with...

  • Both prostate cancer and its treatment may cause urinary problems. Urinary problems caused by prostate cancer The urethra—the tube that carries urine from your bladder and through your penis—passes through the middle of the prostate gland. When the prostate presses against the urethra, you can have trouble...

  • Discusses how cancer pain can almost always be relieved if you work with your doctor to create a treatment plan that is right for you. Covers using a pain control diary and medication record. Includes managing side effects and complementary medicine.

  • Heat and cold treatments can help with mild to moderate pain from cancer. But talk to your doctor before trying either of these during chemotherapy or radiation treatments. Heat may relieve sore muscles. Use a heating pad, a gel pack, or a hot-water bottle. Or you can take a hot bath or shower. Apply heat for no longer...

  • A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of a woman's uterus. A hysterectomy to remove endometrial cancer usually includes the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy). Your doctor may also do a pelvic and para-aortic lymph node biopsy to find out the stage and grade of the cancer. Most...

  • Lymphadenectomy is surgery to remove lymph nodes. A lymphadenectomy, also called lymph node dissection, may be done to examine the pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes for endometrial cancer cells. The removal and examination of the cancerous lymph nodes will determine the exact stage and grade of the cancer and may...

  • Most healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 60 can donate stem cells from their blood. Collecting or harvesting stem cells from your bloodstream is called apheresis. Before the donation For 4 or 5 days before you donate, you will get shots to help your bone marrow make and send more stem cells into your...

  • Discusses cancer that occurs when cells that are not normal grow out of control in testicles (testes). Covers testicular self-exam (TSE). Discusses germ-cell tumors called seminomas and nonseminomas (also called NSGCTs). Covers treatment.

  • Orchiectomy is the removal of one or both testicles (testes). The testicles are the male sex organs that produce sperm and the male hormone, testosterone. An orchiectomy is a common treatment for testicular cancer. It may also be done to treat other conditions such as prostate cancer or in the event of severe trauma to...

  • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is surgery often used to treat testicular cancer. It is done to remove lymph nodes that may be cancerous from the lower back and pelvis. During the early phases of stage I nonseminoma testicular cancer, it can be very difficult to tell whether these lymph nodes are...

  • Discusses lumpectomy and partial mastectomy, two types of breast-conserving surgery. Covers what is done and what to expect after surgery, including having radiation therapy. Also looks at risks.

  • Discusses breast cancer surgery. Covers simple mastectomy, modified mastectomy, and radical mastectomy. Also discusses preventive mastectomy. Covers what to expect after surgery. Looks at risks. Links to info on breast reconstruction.

  • Discusses controlling and preventing nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy. Looks at antinausea drugs including Zofran and Ativan. Also discusses complementary therapy, acupuncture, and nutrition.

  • Discusses steps to avoid swelling from lymphedema if you've had lymph nodes removed or had radiation, especially for cancer. Covers how to prevent infection. Includes exercise to help circulation. Includes care of affected arm or leg, and skin and nails.

  • What is inflammatory breast cancer? Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare, fast-growing type of breast cancer. It is often called IBC for short. Unlike other breast cancers, this type of cancer may not cause a lump in the breast. So regular breast exams and mammograms often fail to catch it early. Because it grows so...

  • Guides you through decision to have your ovaries removed (oophorectomy) to prevent ovarian cancer. Discusses risk of getting ovarian cancer. Covers benefits and risks of surgery. Covers early menopause. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • The average woman has a small chance of getting breast cancer and an even smaller chance of getting ovarian cancer. But if someone in your family has had breast or ovarian cancer, your chances of getting those cancers may be higher. And if you have 2 or 3 relatives who have had these cancers, your chances may be even...

  • Guides you through testing and treatment choices if you're at high risk for breast cancer. Covers extra checkups, medicines, and surgery. Lists reasons for and against for each option. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

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