Health Library

The Health Library is a collection of health and wellness resources created for learning and accessibility. Select a topic below for related health information or search for a topic in the search bar for more information on other medical conditions.

Urology

  • Guides you through the decision to have infertility testing. Talks about causes of infertility. Lists risks and benefits of infertility testing. Explains how you might use test results. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Discusses chronic kidney disease (also called chronic renal failure), which means your kidneys don't work the way they should. Discusses dialysis. Covers treating diabetes and high blood pressure, which cause most cases of chronic kidney disease.

  • Discusses acute kidney injury (which used to be called acute renal failure), which means your kidneys suddenly stop working normally. Includes prerenal acute kidney injury. Covers causes like kidney or liver disease. Includes symptoms like little urine (oliguria) when you urinate. Covers dialysis.

  • Men who have low testosterone do not make enough of the male hormone called testosterone. This hormone allows men to produce sperm and to develop and keep normal physical male traits. Low testosterone is also called testosterone deficiency or...

  • Learn what a prostatectomy is and how it's done.

  • Learn how to care for yourself after a prostatectomy.

  • Anemia means that you do not have enough red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to your body's tissues. If your tissues and organs do not get enough oxygen, they cannot work as well as they should. Anemia is common in people...

  • End-stage kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease, means that your kidneys may no longer be able to keep you alive. When your kidneys get to the point where they can no longer remove waste, you may need dialysis or a new kidney. When you...

  • Take a minute to learn about a urinary tract infection and what you can do to feel better.

  • Watch the personal story of someone who's living better with dialysis.

  • Understand what dialysis is and how it helps you feel better and live longer.

  • Learn how timing affects what type of vascular access you can get before you start dialysis.

  • Learn what to expect when you have a vascular access procedure for hemodialysis.

  • Gender identity is your inner sense of being male, female, both, neither, or some other gender. For transgender people, their gender identity does not match the sex that they were assigned at birth. Sometimes gender identity is outside the two most common categories of male or female. People who feel this way may use...

  • Learn what happens during a kidney transplant and how to prepare.

  • Learn how to care for yourself after a kidney transplant.

  • Find out what to do and when to call for help if your baby or child has mild dehydration.

  • Find out what orchiopexy surgery is and how to prepare your child for it.

  • Find out what you can do at home to care for your child after orchiopexy surgery.

  • Learn how to care for your IV site.

  • This guide covers the basics of renal artery stenosis, including what it is, what causes it, and how it is treated.

  • Learn how to care for yourself and safely recover after a vasectomy.

  • Learn about a vasectomy, how it's done, and how to prepare for the surgery.

  • Looks at eating plans for those who have had kidney stones. Explains what kidney stones are. Offers tips for preventing kidney stones, including drinking more water. Lists foods you should avoid.

  • Guides through decision to have surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Explains symptoms and discusses several types of surgeries used for different symptoms. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Discusses overactive bladder, a kind of urge incontinence. Explains what overactive bladder is. Looks at causes and symptoms. Covers how it is diagnosed. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Hormone therapy for prostate cancer is also known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Prostate cancer cannot grow or survive without androgens, which include testosterone and other male hormones. Hormone therapy decreases the amount of androgens in a man's body. Reducing androgens can slow the growth of the cancer...

  • Provides links to topics that cover men's health issues. Includes info on birth control methods, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and choosing surgery or radiation to treat prostate cancer.

  • Includes info on urine tests and urinary tract infections in children, teens, and adults. Also has links to stress incontinence and kidney stone info.

  • Discusses process of hemodialysis when chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury cause kidneys to lose ability to remove waste and extra fluid. Covers fistulas and grafts. Looks at what to expect after treatment. Discusses peritoneal dialysis.

  • Discusses surgery to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy one. Explains what a living donor is. Covers what to expect after surgery. Looks at risks. Links to picture of kidney transplant. Links to more in-depth info on organ transplant.

  • Guides through the decision to be screened for sexually transmitted infections. Explains STIs and discusses causes and lifestyles that put you at higher risk for getting infected. Covers benefits and risks of testing. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Describes kidney cancer. Covers symptoms and how kidney cancer is diagnosed. Covers treatment with surgery and medicines.

  • Covers surgical removal of all or part of the kidney. Discusses why it may be done, such as for kidney cancer or to remove a damaged kidney. Looks at how well it works and the risks.

  • Discusses the decision about when to start dialysis. Includes what kidney failure is, the treatment for it, and reasons why you might or might not want to start dialysis. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Dialysis is a lifesaving treatment when you have kidney failure. To keep up a regular dialysis schedule, you need a sturdy dialysis access where blood can flow in and out of the body. It must have a good, steady blood flow. Any type of dialysis access has some risk of failure. So it's important to always protect...

  • What is a suprapubic catheter? A suprapubic catheter is a thin, sterile tube used to drain urine from your bladder when you cannot urinate. This type of catheter is used if you aren't able to use a catheter that is inserted into the urethra. The urethra carries urine from the bladder out of the body. An opening...

  • Guides you through decision to use active surveillance for men who have low-risk and for some men who have medium-risk localized prostate cancer. Lists reasons for and against active surveillance. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Learn more about leaking urine and why you should talk to your doctor about it.

  • Learn how to do exercises that can help prevent urine leakage.

  • Learn what you can do at home to slow down kidney damage.

  • Learn how to live with a urinary catheter and how to take care of it to prevent infection.

  • Guides through decision whether to start kidney dialysis for kidney failure. Covers key factors in decision. Covers benefits and risks. Offers interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Adult protective underwear may be helpful for a person who has incontinence. A person who has incontinence has trouble controlling urine or stool. This underwear helps absorb urine and catch stool. There are different types of adult protective underwear. A washable kind may be useful when a loved one has trouble with...

  • What is rhabdomyolysis? Rhabdomyolysis (say "rab-doh-my-AH-luh-suss") is a rare but serious muscle problem. When you have it, your muscle cells break down, or dissolve. The contents of those cells leak into the blood. When it's in the blood, that material can travel to various parts of the body and cause problems...

  • Learn how a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is done and how to prepare your child for this test.

  • The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) uses a thin, low-voltage electrified wire loop to remove genital warts by heating the margin of the area to be removed, which separates the wart from the skin. LEEP is done in a doctor's office, clinic, or hospital on an outpatient basis. A local anesthetic is injected...

  • Guides you through the decision to have infertility treatment. Explains what infertility is and what may cause it. Discusses various types of infertility treatments. Covers benefits and risks. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Guides through decision to take medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or enlarged prostate. Lists common medicine choices. Discusses how to manage your symptoms at home. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Guides through decision of when to do something about your child's bed-wetting. Includes common reasons and home treatment options for bed-wetting. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Oxalate is a compound found in some foods, and it is also produced as a waste product by the body. It exits the body through the urine. Too much oxalate may cause kidney stones in some people. Foods high in oxalate include: Beans. Beer. Beets....

  • Guides through decision to have extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to break up kidney stones. Describes what lithotripsy is and when it is normally used. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Guides through decision to have a PSA test to check for prostate cancer. Includes what PSA results tell you and what they do not. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

  • What are infertility tests? Infertility tests are done to help find out why a woman cannot become pregnant. The tests help find whether the problem is with the man, the woman, or both. Tests usually include a physical exam, semen analysis, blood tests, and special procedures. Should I be tested? Before you have...

  • Uremia (uremic syndrome) is a serious complication of chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury (which used to be known as acute renal failure). It occurs when urea and other waste products build up in the body because the kidneys are unable to...

  • Guides you through the decision to have surgery for stress incontinence. Explains causes of stress incontinence. Lists risks and benefits of surgery. Explains other treatment choices. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Complete one of these records each day for several days, then take the completed records to your doctor. This information will help you and your doctor see how often you leak urine and what seems to cause the leakage. Name: Date: Instructions: Place a check mark in the appropriate column next to the time you urinated...

  • Dialysis removes urea and other waste products from the blood. To find out how well dialysis is working, you will have blood tests that look at the level of urea in your blood. Usually these tests are done once a month, at the beginning of your session and again at the end. Two measures show how well dialysis is...

  • Discusses nephrotic syndrome, a sign kidneys aren't working right. Includes high levels of protein in urine, low levels of protein in blood, and high cholesterol. Discusses swelling (edema) and kidney failure. Covers causes like diabetes. Covers treatment.

  • Smoking can gradually and permanently damage blood vessels throughout the body, including those that carry blood to the penis. This can make it difficult to get or maintain an erection (impotence). Quitting smoking may help prevent new damage from...

  • Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys lose their ability to function. To treat kidney failure effectively, it is important to know whether kidney disease has developed suddenly (acute) or over the long term (chronic). Many conditions, diseases, and...

  • The uroflowmetry test measures the rate of urine flow during urination. Results are usually given in milliliters per second (mL/sec). This test is sometimes used to evaluate the impact benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has on urine flow or to...

  • Discusses signs of when your body loses too much fluid through diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, or exercise. Covers dehydration in babies, small children, and older adults. Discusses prevention, when to see a doctor, emergencies, and rehydration steps.

  • Make sure you know about each of the medicines you take. This includes why you take it, how to take it, what you can expect while you're taking it, and any warnings about the medicine. The information provided here is general. So be sure to read the...

  • Discusses heat-related illnesses. Looks at heatstroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heat rash, and dehydration. Covers signs and symptoms. Offers home treatment and prevention tips. Covers emergency first aid treatment.

  • Cryotherapy (cryosurgery) destroys genital warts by freezing them with liquid nitrogen. A doctor applies liquid nitrogen to and around the warts. First, the tissue is frozen with liquid nitrogen. Then, the tissue is allowed to thaw. The tissue is frozen again, if needed. The time of application varies by the doctor...

  • A laser can be used to destroy genital warts. Laser surgery may be done in a doctor's office or clinic, a hospital, or an outpatient surgery center. Local or general anesthetic may be used depending on the number of warts to be removed or the size of the area to be treated. For women, abnormal cervical cell changes...

  • Your doctor may take a sample, or biopsy, of abnormal tissue. The majority of warts do not require a biopsy. But a biopsy may be taken if genital warts cannot be easily identified with a physical exam or during a gynecology exam with a lighted magnifying instrument ( colposcopy). A microscopic exam on the biopsied...

  • Psychological issues may play a role in erection problems (erectile dysfunction). These issues may include depression, anxiety disorder, or another mental disorder. Men with these types of problems may benefit from therapy. Psychological treatment...

  • Sex therapy may be helpful for some men who have erection problems (erectile dysfunction). Sex therapy doesn't involve having sex with or in front of the sex therapist. Also, isn't long-term or open-ended therapy. It usually involves working with a...

  • Looking at events in your life, your relationships, and your feelings can often help you figure out things that may contribute to erection problems (erectile dysfunction). Review the following events and concerns. Did your erection problems begin at this time? If so, this may be a factor. Talk to your partner or others...

  • Talking with your partner may help your erection problems (erectile dysfunction). Couples often assume that they each know what the other person likes when it comes to sex. Sometimes they are wrong. Don't assume. Tell your partner what you do and...

  • Sensual exercises may help with erection problems (erectile dysfunction). Doing these with your partner may help you relax and focus more on the pleasurable touching of lovemaking than on the erection itself. Focusing too much on having an erection...

  • A vacuum device, which is sometimes used to treat erection problems (erectile dysfunction), is a tube made of plastic that fits around the penis. You coat the base of the penis with lubricant and insert the penis into the tube. Air is pumped out of the tube, which creates a vacuum. The vacuum helps blood flow into the...

  • Penile implants to treat erection problems (erectile dysfunction) are either semirigid (noninflatable) or inflatable cylinders that replace the spongy tissue (corpora cavernosum) inside the penis that fills with blood during an erection. The implants come in a variety of diameters and lengths. Noninflatable (or...

  • What are erection problems? A man has erection problems if he cannot get or keep an erection that is firm enough for him to have sex. Erection problems are also called erectile dysfunction or impotence. Most men have erection problems every now and then. This is normal. These problems can occur at any age. But they...

  • If you have preeclampsia or chronic kidney disease, your health professional may instruct you to check the protein content in your urine at home. Increased protein is a sign that your kidneys are being damaged. To test your urine on a daily basis,...

  • Loss of bladder and bowel control (incontinence) can sometimes result from Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Several strategies may help you deal with this problem: Encourage the person to use the bathroom on a regular schedule, such as every...

  • Discusses rare flesh-eating bacterial infection. Includes info on Fournier gangrene. Covers symptoms and how it is diagnosed. Looks at treatment with medicine, surgery, and oxygen therapy. Covers treatment for complications caused by the infection.

  • What is circumcision? Male circumcision is a surgery to remove the foreskin, a fold of skin that covers and protects the rounded tip of the penis. The foreskin provides sensation and lubrication for the penis. After the foreskin is removed, it can't be put back on again. See a picture of the penis before and after...

  • What is chlamydia? Chlamydia (say "kluh-MID-ee-uh") is an infection spread through sexual contact. This infection infects the urethra in men. In women, it infects the urethra and the cervix and can spread to the reproductive organs. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Chlamydia does...

  • What is gonorrhea? Gonorrhea is an infection spread through sexual contact. In men, it most often infects the urethra. In women, it usually infects the urethra, cervix, or both. It also can infect the rectum, anus, throat, and pelvic organs. In rare cases, it can infect the eyes. Gonorrhea does not cause problems if...

  • A person with multiple sclerosis (MS) may have difficulty emptying the bladder completely, because the muscle that helps to retain urine cannot relax (a form of spasticity). Sometimes urination can be stimulated by pressing or tapping the bladder...

  • You may wish to consider adoption as an alternative to treatment for infertility. Learning more about the tests, exams, success rates, and costs of infertility treatment may help you decide. Adoption provides people with an opportunity to raise and...

  • Reproductive research and treatment raise many ethical and legal concerns. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine has issued a number of statements about these issues. You can review these statements on its website at...

  • Looking for a cause of infertility can be a brief process or can become a financially, emotionally, and physically demanding succession of tests and procedures. Before you start infertility testing, take some time together to talk about how far each...

  • Infertility treatment has great potential for squandering some of your most precious resources—money, time, and peace of mind. Before you start infertility treatment, decide how much money, time, and emotional energy you can afford to spend on...

  • The most common cause of male infertility is low sperm count. Absence of sperm in the semen is less common, affecting 1 out of 100 men and affecting 10 to 15 out of 100 infertile men. Causes of sperm count problems include: Hormonal...

  • The phosphate urine test measures the amount of phosphate in a sample of urine collected over 24 hours (24-hour urine test). Phosphate is a charged particle (ion) that contains the mineral phosphorus. The body needs phosphorus to build and repair bones and teeth, help nerves function, and make muscles contract. Most...

  • When considering whether to try medicine or hormone treatment for infertility, ask: Whether there are any possible long-term risks related to the proposed treatment. Whether you need to change your sexual activities during treatment. Your doctor may...

  • When thinking about an assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedure, ask your doctor: For a step-by-step description of the procedure. Ask about any fertility medicines, daily blood testing, and egg harvesting. ART treatment is physically and...

  • Infertility is a major life crisis for many couples. It may affect self-esteem, body image, sexual identity, life goals, and sexual relations. When faced with the possibility or diagnosis of infertility, you may experience a broad range of emotions, including: Initial disbelief and denial followed by anger...

  • An insemination procedure uses a thin, flexible tube (catheter) to put sperm into the woman's reproductive tract. For some couples with infertility problems, insemination can improve the chances of pregnancy. Donor sperm are used if the male partner...

  • Discusses blood test to check level of potassium (K) in blood. Includes info on what affects potassium levels in the body such as kidney function, blood pH, and hormones. Explains how and why test is done. Covers what results mean.

  • Looks at repairing varicoceles, which are enlarged varicose veins in the scrotum. Explains that varicocele repair is done to improve male fertility. Covers how it is done and what to expect after surgery. Also covers risks.

  • Looks at infertility. Includes info on various tests used for women and men to find out why a woman can't get pregnant. Covers treatments for men and women, including medicine to help a woman ovulate and procedures to increase a man's sperm count.

  • There are four main types of kidney stones. Most kidney stones are made of calcium compounds, especially calcium oxalate. Calcium phosphate and other minerals also may be present. Conditions that cause high calcium levels in the body, such as...

  • Discusses extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a procedure that uses shock waves to break a kidney stone into smaller pieces. Covers how it is done and what to expect after treatment. Covers risks.

  • Discusses traditional surgery used to remove kidney stones. Covers why it is done and what to expect after surgery. Covers risks.

  • Looks at procedures to remove kidney stones from the kidneys. Explains difference between nephrolithotomy and nephrolithotripsy. Looks at when each may be done. Covers risks.

  • Briefly discusses test used to see if a kidney stone or something else is blocking your urinary tract. Covers how it is done and possible results.

  • For this procedure the surgeon, often a urologist, doesn't make any incisions (cuts in the body). He or she first inserts a thin viewing instrument (ureteroscope) into the urethra (the tube that leads from the outside of the body to the bladder). Then the doctor passes the ureteroscope through the bladder and the...

  • Explains why and how kidney stones form. Covers types of stones such as calcium, cystine, uric acid, and struvite. Discusses symptoms. Covers treatment, including extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy. Offers prevention tips.

  • Cystometry is a test that measures the pressure inside of the bladder to see how well the bladder is working. Cystometry is done when a muscle or nerve problem may be causing problems with how well the bladder holds or releases urine. Urination is a complex process. As the bladder fills, nerves in the bladder wall send...

  • Cystoscopy (say "sis-TAW-skuh-pee") is a test that allows your doctor to look at the inside of your bladder and urethra. It's done using a thin, lighted tube called a cystoscope. The doctor inserts this tube into your urethra and on into the bladder. Your doctor can see areas of your bladder and urethra that usually...

  • A cystourethrogram is an X-ray test that takes pictures of your bladder and urethra while your bladder is full and while you are urinating. A thin flexible tube ( urinary catheter) is inserted through your urethra into your bladder. A liquid material that shows up well on an X-ray picture ( contrast material) is...

  • Moisture alarms are the most successful single treatment for bed-wetting. They work best for older children who can hear the alarm and wake themselves. If attempts to use a reward system (motivational therapy), drink most fluids in the...

  • Electrocautery removes genital warts on the penis, vulva, or around the anus by burning them with a low-voltage electrified probe. Electrocautery is usually done in a doctor's office or a clinic. The injection of a numbing medicine ( local anesthetic) is usually used for pain control. Medicine that causes...

  • Visible genital warts on the penis or vagina or around the anus are removed by excision, which means cutting the warts off with a surgical knife (scalpel). Warts on the cervix may be removed by laser or loop electrosurgical excision (LEEP). The procedure is usually done in a doctor's office or clinic or an outpatient...

  • Motivational therapy for bed-wetting uses praise, encouragement, and rewards to help a child gain bladder control. It's about telling children that they have control of their bodies and encouraging them to take steps that bring about more and more...

  • What is bed-wetting? Bed-wetting is urination during sleep. Children learn bladder control at different ages. Children younger than 4 often wet their beds or clothes, because they can't yet control their bladder. But by age 5 or 6 most children can stay dry through the night. Bed-wetting is defined as a child age 5 or...

  • Keep a daily diary of all liquids taken in and all urine released, whether voluntary or involuntary. Your health professional may also call this a voiding log, bladder record, frequency-volume chart, incontinence chart, or voiding diary. The diary...

  • Kegel exercises make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These muscles control your urine flow and help hold your pelvic organs in place. Doctors often prescribe Kegels for: Stress incontinence. This means leaking urine when you laugh, cough, sneeze, jog, or lift something heavy. Urge...

  • A bladder stress test simulates the accidental release of urine ( urinary incontinence) that may occur when you cough, sneeze, laugh, or exercise. A Bonney test is done as part of the bladder stress test, after the doctor verifies that urine is lost with coughing. It is similar to the bladder stress test except the...

  • Urodynamic tests for urinary incontinence are measurements taken to evaluate your bladder's function and efficiency. The actual tests done vary from person to person. Some urodynamic tests are relatively simple and can be done in a doctor's office. Other tests require expensive and sophisticated instruments to measure...

  • Retropubic suspension surgery is used to treat urinary incontinence by lifting the sagging bladder neck and urethra that have dropped abnormally low in the pelvic area. Retropubic suspension is abdominal surgery, where access to the bladder and urethra is gained by making an incision in the abdominal (belly) wall. This...

  • Urethral sling surgery, also called mid-urethral sling surgery, is done to treat urinary incontinence. A sling is placed around the urethra to lift it back into a normal position and to exert pressure on the urethra to aid urine retention. The sling is attached to the abdominal (belly) wall. The sling material may be...

  • Urethral bulking to treat urinary incontinence involves injecting material (such as collagen) around the urethra. This may be done to: Close a hole in the urethra through which urine leaks out. Build up the thickness of the wall of the urethra so it seals tightly when you hold back urine. Most bulking materials are...

  • Several types of behavioral methods are used for treating urinary incontinence: bladder training, habit training, biofeedback, and pelvic muscle exercises. People who have incontinence due to physical or mental limitations ( functional incontinence) can try timed voiding and prompted voiding. Bladder training...

  • Electrical stimulation is used to treat urinary incontinence by sending a mild electric current to nerves in the lower back or the pelvic muscles that are involved in urination. You may be able to provide electrical stimulation therapy at home using a unit with a vaginal or anal electrode. Timing and duration of...

  • Absorbent products are items that absorb urine, such as adult diapers, plastic-coated underwear, pads, or panty liners that attach to underwear. Most commercially available items are disposable (such as Depend or Poise). Some absorbent cloths can be washed and reused. Drip collectors that fit over the penis are also...

  • Discusses urinary incontinence in women. Looks at types of incontinence, including stress and urge incontinence. Covers causes and symptoms. Discusses treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Some people who have a stroke suffer loss of bladder control (urinary incontinence) after the stroke. But this is usually temporary. And it can have many causes, including infection, constipation, and the effects of medicines. If you have problems...

  • Discusses vasovasostomy, a procedure to reconnect the vas deferens tubes that were cut during a vasectomy. Covers what to expect after surgery and how well it works. Also covers risks.

  • During in vitro fertilization (IVF), eggs and sperm are brought together in a laboratory glass dish to allow the sperm to fertilize an egg. With IVF, you can use any combination of your own eggs and sperm and donor eggs and sperm. After IVF, one or more fertilized eggs are placed in the uterus. Ovulation...

  • Discusses test kits you can get without a prescription to use at home to check for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Looks at how test is done and how to prepare. Discusses possible results.

  • Tests for erection problems can help find out why a man can't have or maintain an erection. This problem is called erectile dysfunction, or impotence. It's a common male problem. Most erection problems are caused by a mix of blood vessel, nerve, or psychological issues. To find the cause, your doctor will first ask...

  • Discusses kidney biopsy (also called percutaneous renal biopsy) done with a long thin needle to remove a sample of kidney tissue. Covers how it may be done to check for kidney disease or after a kidney transplant. Explains how it is done, risks, and results.

  • A testicular biopsy is a test to remove a small sample of tissue from one or both testicles. The tissue is then looked at under a microscope to see if the man is able to father a child. The testicles (testes) are oval-shaped glands that hang in the scrotum under the base of the penis. The testes produce sperm (which...

  • Testicular exam and testicular self-exam are two ways to find lumps or other problems in the testicles. The two testicles, or testes, are the male sex organs. They are located in the scrotum, a pouch below the penis. The testicles make sperm and the male hormone testosterone. Each testicle is about the size and...

  • Herpes tests are done to find the herpes simplex virus (HSV). An HSV infection can cause small, painful sores that look like blisters on the skin or the tissue lining ( mucous membranes) of the throat, nose, mouth, urethra, rectum, and vagina. A herpes infection may cause only a single outbreak of sores, but in many...

  • Guides through decision to have prostate surgery for BPH. Lists benefits and risks of surgery. Discusses taking medicine to treat your enlarged prostate instead. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Discusses genital herpes, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 or HSV-2). Covers symptoms and treatment, including care during pregnancy. Covers what increases your risk and offers prevention tips.

  • What is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)? Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate gland. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. As the prostate gets bigger, it may squeeze or partly block the urethra. This often causes problems with...

  • What are cold sores? Cold sores, sometimes called fever blisters, are groups of small blisters on the lip and around the mouth. Often the first sign of a cold sore is a spot that tingles, burns, or itches. A blister usually forms within 24 hours. The skin around the blisters is often red, swollen, and sore. The...

  • Chlamydia tests use a sample of body fluid or urine to see whether chlamydia bacteria ( Chlamydia trachomatis) are present and causing an infection. Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States. Tests used to find a chlamydia infection include...

  • Gonorrhea tests tell if a person has this disease. They look for the bacterium, or germ, that causes gonorrhea. Testing is done on body fluid or urine samples. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection. That means it is spread through sexual contact. It does not always cause symptoms. Tests used to find a...

  • A prostate biopsy is a test to remove small samples of prostate tissue to be looked at under a microscope. The tissue samples taken are looked at for cancer cells. For a transrectal prostate biopsy, an ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum. Guided by ultrasound, a spring-loaded needle is used to take samples...

  • The following tips may make it easier to deal with your benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms. Practice "double voiding" by urinating as much as possible, relaxing for a few moments, and then urinating again. Try to relax before you urinate....

  • Several factors determine whether you have a complicated urinary tract infection. You have symptoms, such as: A high temperature, greater than 101 F (38.3 C). Ongoing nausea, vomiting, and chills. Your condition getting worse in spite of doctor-directed home treatment. You have other risks, such as...

  • Bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis) is a problem that causes pain in the bladder or pelvis. It also causes an urgent, frequent need to urinate. The problem is much more common in women than in men. To diagnose bladder pain syndrome (BPS),...

  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in older women and men. Factors that make older adults more likely to develop UTIs include: An immune system that isn't as strong as when the person was younger. A reduced ability to control urination and...

  • For years, people have used cranberry juice to prevent and help cure urinary tract infections (UTIs). There is limited proof that this is worth trying. Pure cranberry juice, cranberry extract, or cranberry supplements may help prevent repeated UTIs...

  • Discusses test that evaluates sperm to see if there are fertility problems or if a vasectomy worked. Covers how the test is done and how to prepare. Discusses what results may mean. Lists factors like medicines or activities that may affect the test.

  • Discusses urinary tract infection in teens and adults. Covers symptoms and how problems might be diagnosed with urinalysis or a urine culture. Looks at treatment with antibiotics. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • During transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), an instrument is inserted up the urethra to remove the section of the prostate that is blocking urine flow. TURP usually requires a stay in the hospital. It is done using a general or spinal anesthetic.

  • Discusses traditional surgery to remove an enlarged prostate. Covers what to expect after surgery and risks. Links to info on TURP.

  • Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP) may be done to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The surgeon uses an instrument inserted into the urethra that generates an electric current or laser beam to make incisions in the prostate where the prostate meets the bladder. Cutting muscle in this area relaxes the...

  • Discusses vasectomy, a permanent method of birth control for men. Covers how it is done and what to expect after surgery. Discusses how well it works and risks. Also provides info on reconnecting the vas deferens (vasectomy reversal).

  • Briefly discusses surgery to remove the prostate gland through the urethra. Covers why it is done and how well it works. Lists risks.

  • Covers the various types of prostatitis, including acute bacterial, inflammatory, noninflammatory, and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Covers symptoms for each type. Discusses treatment for each type. Covers lifestyle changes, medicines, and surgery.

  • Radiation therapy uses high doses of radiation, such as X-rays, to destroy cancer cells. The radiation damages the genetic material of the cells so that they can't grow. Although radiation damages normal cells as well as cancer cells, the normal cells can repair themselves and function, while the cancer cells cannot...

  • Looks at surgery to remove the prostate gland in those who have prostate cancer. Covers traditional and laparoscopic surgery. Covers how well it works. Looks at risks.

  • Orchiectomy is the removal of the testicles. The penis and the scrotum, the pouch of skin that holds the testicles, are left intact. An orchiectomy is done to stop most of the body's production of testosterone, which prostate cancer usually needs in order to continue growing. Simple orchiectomy is the removal of both...

  • Provides info on an initial diagnosis. Discusses diagnostic tests, including PSA test and digital rectal exam. Covers symptoms common to prostate cancer and other conditions. Discusses treatment with active surveillance, surgery, or radiation. Also offers prevention tips.

  • Covers test done on a kidney stone to find out what the stone is made of. Links to info on types of stones, including calcium, uric acid, struvite, and cystine. Explains that test can help doctor decide treatment or give info on preventing more stones from forming.

  • Male genital problems and injuries can occur fairly easily since the scrotum and penis are not protected by bones. Genital problems and injuries most commonly occur during: Sports or recreational activities, such as mountain biking, soccer, or baseball. Work-related tasks, such as exposure to irritating chemicals...

  • It is not unusual to have a problem with your mouth from time to time. A mouth problem can involve your gums, lips, tongue, or inner cheeks, the roof of your mouth (soft and hard palates), under your tongue, your neck, or your teeth. Your mouth may...

  • Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys. There are two kidneys...

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

  • Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a...

  • Male breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in men. Breast cancer may occur in men at any age, but it usually occurs in men between 60 and 70 years of age. Male breast cancer makes up less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer. The...

  • Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles. The testicles are 2 egg-shaped glands located inside the scrotum (a sac of loose skin that lies directly below the penis). The testicles are held within the scrotum by the spermatic cord, which also contains...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Childhood kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the kidney. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney...

  • Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. In women, the urethra is about 1½ inches long and is just above the vagina. In men, the urethra is about 8 inches long, and goes through the...

  • NOTE: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only. PC-SPES is a mixture of 8 herbs that was sold as a dietary supplement to keep the prostate healthy (see Question 1). Some batches of PC-SPES were found to contain prescription medicines. It was taken off the...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Men in the United States get prostate cancer more than any other type of cancer except skin cancer. It occurs mainly in older men. In the United States, about 1 in every 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime. Most men with prostate cancer do not die of it. Complementary and alternative...

  • Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each...

  • Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscle wall that allows it to get bigger or smaller. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They...

  • Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles. The testicles are two egg-shaped glands located inside the scrotum (a sac of loose skin that lies directly below the penis). The testicles are held within the scrotum by the spermatic cord, which also contains...

  • Increase your fluid intake to replace lost fluids when you have a fever, diarrhea, vomiting, or sweating. The following suggested amounts of fluids to drink every hour are based on body weight: Your weight Fluid Pounds Kilograms Ounces Milliliters...

  • When your child is not feeling well, he or she may not want anything to drink. This may happen if your child has a fever or diarrhea or is vomiting. It is important that your child drink enough fluids to avoid dehydration. Not drinking enough fluid can cause constipation. When the weather gets hot or when your child is...

  • Discusses common skin rashes that affect those 11 and younger. Covers chickenpox, diaper rash, prickly heat, and contact dermatitis. Offers home treatment tips for fever and itching. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor.

  • As a baby boy grows inside his mother, he develops testicles. Early in his development, his testicles are in his belly. Normally, before he is born, his testicles move down into his scrotum, the sac that hangs below the penis. When one testicle does...

  • A testicular prosthesis is a small implant with a size, shape, and consistency like a real testicle. It is usually made of a soft plastic (silicone) shell and filled with saline (salt water). The risks of a testicular prosthesis include infection...

  • Surgery to move an undescended testicle into the scrotum is called orchiopexy or orchidopexy. Surgery is usually recommended by the time the baby is 18 months old. In most cases, a pediatric surgeon or a specialist who treats urinary problems in children (pediatric urologist) performs the surgery. Orchiopexy may also...

  • Mouth sores may make eating and talking painful. The most common mouth sores are cold sores and canker sores. In severe cases of canker sores, a doctor may prescribe a medicine to ease inflammation and pain. Other possible causes of mouth sores include: Impetigo. Symptoms may include oozing...

  • A genital self-exam is a simple examination you can give yourself to become familiar with what is normal for you and to see if you have any symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Men Look for any areas of redness, sores, bumps, warts, or blisters in your genital area. Look closely at and feel the...

  • An injury to the genital area can cause severe pain. Usually the pain subsides over the course of a few minutes to an hour. Severe pain does not always mean that your injury is severe. After an injury to the genital area, it is important that you watch for urinary problems. Other injuries that can cause problems with...

  • When your child injures his or her genital area, the pain can be quite severe at first. Usually, the pain subsides over the course of a few minutes to an hour. The severity of the pain is not always an indication of the severity of the injury. After an injury to the genital area, it is important to watch for urinary...

  • Most people lose as much as 1 qt (1 L) to 2 qt (2 L) of fluid during 1 hour of exercise. When you are not drinking enough fluids, your muscles get tired quickly, and you may have leg cramps while walking or running. If you are an athlete, you can lose as much as 3 qt (3 L) of fluid an hour during an intense workout...

  • Lists common sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea, HIV, HPV (genital warts), syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor. Covers safer sex. Offers prevention tips.

  • Daytime accidental wetting is much less common than bed-wetting. But about 1 out of 4 children who wet the bed at night also wet during the day. Knowing the cause of the wetting will help you and your child's doctor decide on the best treatment. Daytime accidental wetting is more likely than bed-wetting to develop...

  • Guides through decision about what type of dialysis to have for kidney failure. Explains the two basic types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Discusses changing your diet to help protect your kidneys when you have kidney disease. Gives general ideas about how to follow the diet your doctor or dietitian recommends. Covers restricting salt (sodium), protein, phosphorus, and potassium.

  • Guides you through choosing between radiation therapy and surgery (prostatectomy) to treat prostate cancer. Lists reasons for and against radiation therapy. Also lists reasons for and against surgery. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Screening for prostate cancer—checking for signs of the disease when there are no symptoms—is done with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. In the United States, about 12 out of 100 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer sometime during their lifetime. But most men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer don't...

  • If the herpes simplex virus (HSV) invades a part of the body other than the genital area, it may cause disease in that part of the body. In general, complications are rare. And they usually occur with the first-time (primary) genital herpes outbreak. Some of these complications include: Meningitis, an infection of the...

  • Discusses urinary tract infection in children 12 years and younger. Covers symptoms and how problems might be diagnosed with urinalysis or a urine culture. Looks at treatment with antibiotics. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • A urinary obstruction refers to anything that blocks, slows, or disrupts the normal flow of urine through the urinary tract. Obstructions can occur at any point in the urinary tract. They can be present at birth (congenital) or develop later. Causes of urinary obstructions in children include: Kidney stones. Kidney...

  • Interactive tool to help you figure out whether you want treatment for urinary symptoms from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Provides links to more detailed info on BPH and decision tools for treatment options.

  • During a male genital exam for sexually transmitted infections, the doctor: Looks for discharge from the penis. The doctor may put a thin swab into the urethra and take a sample of fluid and cells to test for infections such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Checks the testicles for swelling and tenderness. May use a small...

  • Most women have an increased urge to urinate during pregnancy. This is a normal body response related to hormone changes that occur during pregnancy and to physical pressure on the bladder. Bladder infections are more common during pregnancy. When a bladder infection develops during pregnancy, you may have discomfort...

  • Cryosurgery freezes the prostate gland to kill prostate cancer. It is sometimes a choice for treating early prostate cancer. Cryosurgery may also be used for treating prostate cancer that has come back. For cryosurgery, a number of probes or needles are stuck through the skin into the prostate gland. Transrectal...

  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is the flushing of sperm directly into the uterus. This is done through a thin, flexible tube (catheter). Artificial insemination (AI) is the placement of sperm into a woman's cervix or vagina. The sperm then travel into the uterus and fallopian tubes, where they may fertilize an...

  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an assisted reproductive technology (ART) used to treat sperm-related infertility problems. ICSI is used to enhance the fertilization phase of in vitro fertilization (IVF) by injecting a single sperm into a mature egg. The fertilized egg is then placed in a woman's uterus or...

  • Some treatments for cancer can cause infertility in both men and women. Also, cancer treatment in children may affect their future fertility. Infertility from cancer treatment may be temporary or permanent. Whether or not your cancer treatment will...

  • Infertility treatment success is defined as the birth of a healthy infant. Major things that affect your chances of conceiving and carrying a healthy pregnancy with or without treatment include maternal age, how long you have been trying to...

  • You may have some difficulty urinating for a day or two after delivery. Your first bowel movement may be quite painful if you have had an incision (episiotomy) or a tear in your vagina. You may also have constipation or discomfort with bowel...

  • Guides through decision to stop kidney dialysis for kidney failure. Covers key factors in decision. Covers benefits and risks. Discusses what happens after dialysis is stopped. Offers interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • What is pelvic organ prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse occurs when a pelvic organ—such as your bladder—drops (prolapses) from its normal place in your lower belly and pushes against the walls of your vagina. This can happen when the muscles that hold your pelvic organs in place get weak or stretched from childbirth or...

  • Two common forms of pelvic organ prolapse are bladder prolapse (cystocele) and urethral prolapse (urethrocele). A cystocele occurs when the wall of the bladder presses against and moves the wall of the vagina. A urethrocele occurs when the tissues surrounding the urethra sag downward into the vagina. Both conditions...

  • Discusses peritoneal dialysis. Covers having a catheter and using dialysate solution. Discusses hemodialysis. Looks at what to expect after treatment, how well it works, and risks.

  • Many medicines may impair kidney function and cause kidney damage. And if your kidneys aren't working well, medicines can build up in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your doctor may advise you to continue to take a medicine but may change how much you take. Or you may change to a different medicine. Don't...

  • The stages of chronic kidney disease are determined by the glomerular filtration rate. Glomerular filtration is the process by which the kidneys filter the blood, removing excess wastes and fluids. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a calculation that determines how well the blood is filtered by the kidneys. It is one...

  • Many medicines can cause acute kidney injury (acute renal failure), such as: Antibiotics. These include aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, amphotericin B, bacitracin, and vancomycin. Some blood pressure medicines. One example is ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril and ramipril. Another is angiotensin receptor blockers...

  • Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can cause dehydration. A few examples are: Antihistamines. Blood pressure medicines. Chemotherapy. Diuretics. Laxatives. If you think that your dehydration is caused by a medicine: Call the doctor who prescribed the medicine to find out if you should stop taking...

  • A urinary catheter is a flexible plastic tube used to drain urine from the bladder when a person cannot urinate. A doctor will place the catheter into the bladder by inserting it through the urethra. The urethra is the opening that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. When the catheter is in...

  • What is a hydrocele? A hydrocele is a painless buildup of watery fluid around one or both testicles that causes the scrotum or groin area to swell. This swelling may be unsightly and uncomfortable, but it usually is not painful and generally is not dangerous. Although hydroceles are common in newborns, they can also...

  • Hypospadias is a male birth defect in which the opening of the tube that carries urine from the body (urethra) develops abnormally, usually on the underside of the penis. The opening can occur anywhere from just below the end of the penis to the...

  • What is vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)? Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the backward flow of urine from the bladder into the kidneys. Normally, urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The muscles of the bladder and ureters, along with the pressure of urine in the bladder, prevent urine from...

  • What is Peyronie's disease? Peyronie's disease is an abnormal curvature of the penis caused by scar tissue in the erectile tissue. Because the scar tissue prevents straightening of the penis, the curvature is most obvious during an erection. The curvature may be so severe that it prevents penetration during...

  • What is premature ejaculation? Premature ejaculation is uncontrolled ejaculation either before or shortly after sexual penetration. It happens with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes. It may result in unsatisfactory sex for both partners. This can increase the anxiety that may add to the problem...

  • What is epididymitis? The epididymis is a long, tightly coiled tube that lies above and behind each testicle. It collects and stores maturing sperm made by the testicles prior to ejaculation. Inflammation and infection of the epididymis is called epididymitis. What causes epididymitis? The causes of epididymitis vary...

  • What is a spermatocele? A spermatocele (epididymal cyst) is a painless, fluid-filled cyst in the long, tightly coiled tube that lies above and behind each testicle ( epididymis). The fluid in the cyst may contain sperm that are no longer alive. It feels like a smooth, firm lump in the scrotum on top of the testicle...

  • If you develop symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (STI), it is important to be evaluated by a health professional soon after your symptoms start. Symptoms of an STI include: A change in vaginal discharge (thicker, discolored, or bad-smelling) over a period of several days to 2 weeks. Pain, burning, or...

  • A urostomy is an opening in the abdomen created by a surgical procedure (radical cystectomy) to allow urine to flow to the outside of the body. This may be needed when a diseased or damaged bladder has to be removed. The urostomy (or ostomy) creates an opening that is called a stoma. Wound, ostomy, and continence...

  • Purines (specific chemical compounds found in some foods) are broken down into uric acid. A diet rich in purines from certain sources can raise uric acid levels in the body, which sometimes leads to gout. Meat and seafood may increase your risk of gout. Dairy products may lower your risk. Foods to limit (very high in...

  • Discusses diabetic nephropathy, which means kidney disease or damage caused by diabetes. Covers causes and symptoms. Discusses how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including medicines, diet, and dialysis. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • A hydrocele (say "HY-druh-seel") is a buildup of watery fluid around one or both testicles. It causes the scrotum or groin area to swell. A congenital hydrocele is one that a baby is born with. Hydroceles can also occur later in life for a number of...

  • The post-void residual (PVR) urine test measures the amount of urine left in the bladder after urination. The test is used to help evaluate: Incontinence (accidental release of urine) in women and men. Urination problems. An enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH). The amount of leftover...

  • Guides you through the decision to take medicines (Cialis, Levitra, or Viagra) for erection problems. Explains erectile dysfunction and what causes it. Lists risks and benefits of medicines. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Guides through decision to try injection treatment for erection problems. Lists common causes of erection problems. Includes information about types of injections used. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Herbal supplements that may be used to relieve symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) include beta-sitosterol, cernilton , Pygeum africanum, and saw palmetto. In general, the trials using these substances have been short, and self-reported improvement scores can be biased. Different preparations are available...

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) rarely has complications. When it does, they are often due to severe obstruction of the urine flow. These complications include: Complete blockage of the urethra (acute urinary retention, or AUR). This results in a complete inability to urinate. It can cause kidney damage, which may...

  • In transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT), an instrument (called an antenna) that sends out microwave energy is inserted through the urethra to a location inside the prostate. Microwave energy is then used to heat the inside of the prostate. Cooling fluid is circulated around the microwave antenna to prevent heat from...

  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are some of the most widespread infections both in the United States and the world. STIs affect both men and women, and two-thirds of all STIs occur in people younger than 25. Exposure to an STI can occur any...

  • Testicular cancer is not common. It is often first discovered by the man himself, or his sex partner, as a lump or an enlarged and swollen testicle. In the early stages of testicular cancer, the lump, which may be about the size of a pea, usually is not painful. Testicular cancer has a high cure rate. Experts have...

  • Intermittent catheterization programs (ICPs) are often used when you have the ability to use a catheter yourself or someone can do it for you. You insert the catheter—a thin, flexible, hollow tube—through the urethra into the bladder and allow the urine to drain out. It is done at scheduled times, and the catheter is...

  • Intermittent catheterization programs (ICPs) are often used when you have the ability to use a catheter yourself or someone can do it for you. You insert the catheter—a thin, flexible, hollow tube—through the urethra into the bladder and allow the urine to drain out. It is done at scheduled times, and the catheter is...

  • What is overflow incontinence? Overflow incontinence is the involuntary release of urine—due to a weak bladder muscle or to blockage—when the bladder becomes overly full, even though the person feels no urge to urinate. What are the symptoms? Symptoms of overflow incontinence include: The sudden release of urine...

  • Total incontinence is the continuous and total loss of urinary control. One cause is neurogenic bladder. This is a neurological problem that prevents the bladder from emptying as it should. Spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and other disorders that affect nerve function can also lead to total incontinence. In...

  • Functional incontinence occurs when some obstacle or disability makes it hard for you to reach or use a toilet in time to urinate. It is often caused by: A problem with walking (such as needing a walker or crutches) that prevents you from reaching a toilet in time to urinate. A medical condition (such as arthritis)...

  • Stress incontinence in women can cause frequent involuntary release of urine during activities that put pressure on your bladder, such as coughing or laughing. The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure is designed to provide support for a sagging urethra so that when you cough or move vigorously or suddenly, the...

  • Discusses the causes and symptoms of bladder cancer. Covers how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Offers home treatment suggestions to manage side effects like nausea and trouble sleeping.

  • Transurethral resection (TUR) of the bladder is a surgical procedure that is used both to diagnose bladder cancer and to remove cancerous tissue from the bladder. This procedure is also called a TURBT (transurethral resection for bladder tumor). General anesthesia or spinal anesthesia is often used. During TUR surgery...

  • Cystectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the bladder. It is used to treat bladder cancer that has spread into the bladder wall or to treat cancer that has come back (recurred) following initial treatment. Partial cystectomy is the removal of part of the bladder. It is used to treat cancer that...

  • Discusses prostate cancer that has spread or come back. Discusses symptoms. Covers treatment choices and factors that will affect them, including age, PSA level, Gleason score, and how far cancer has spread. Covers end-of-life issues.

  • Most men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer have localized cancer, which means that the cancer hasn't spread outside the prostate. Some men who have localized prostate cancer choose active surveillance, which allows them to avoid or delay having surgery or radiation. Active surveillance is an option for men with...

  • Both prostate cancer and its treatment may cause urinary problems. Urinary problems caused by prostate cancer The urethra—the tube that carries urine from your bladder and through your penis—passes through the middle of the prostate gland. When the prostate presses against the urethra, you can have trouble...

  • Urinary problems and injuries are a concern in children. A young child may not be able to tell you about his or her symptoms, which can make it hard to decide what your child needs. An older child may be embarrassed about his or her symptoms. When your child has a urinary problem or injury, look at all of his or her...

  • Most people will have some kind of urinary problem or injury in their lifetime. Urinary tract problems and injuries can range from minor to more serious. Sometimes, minor and serious problems can start with the same symptoms. Many urinary problems and injuries are minor, and home treatment is all that is needed to...

  • Sperm penetration tests check to see if a man's sperm can move through cervical mucus and the fallopian tubes to join with (fertilize) an egg. This test is usually done when a couple is having trouble getting pregnant (infertility). There are different sperm penetration tests. The sperm mucus penetration...

  • Gout is a form of arthritis marked by sudden attacks of painful, inflamed joints. If it is not controlled, gout can cause severe damage to joints, tendons, and other tissues. Gout is caused by too much uric acid in the blood. This used to be treated with a strict diet, but now there are medicines that can control it...

  • Discusses urinary incontinence in men. Looks at types of incontinence, including stress, urge, overflow, total, and functional. Covers causes and symptoms. Covers treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Catheters used to manage urinary incontinence include: Standard catheter. This is a thin, flexible, hollow tube that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder and allows the urine to drain out. The standard catheter is used for intermittent self-catheterization. Indwelling Foley...

  • Urge incontinence is a need to urinate that is so strong that you cannot reach the toilet in time. It can occur even when the bladder contains only a small amount of urine. Urge incontinence can be caused by bladder contractions that are too strong to be stopped by the bladder outlet valve (sphincter). This results in...

  • Stress incontinence occurs when a man unintentionally releases a small amount of urine when he coughs, laughs, strains, lifts, or changes posture. It is most common after a man has had his prostate gland removed and there was damage to the nerves or to the external bladder outlet valve (sphincter). After a man's...

  • An artificial sphincter is a device made of silicone rubber that is used to treat urinary incontinence. An artificial sphincter has an inflatable cuff that fits around the urethra close to the point where it joins the bladder. A balloon regulates the pressure of the cuff, and a bulb controls inflation and deflation of...

  • Discusses cancer that occurs when cells that are not normal grow out of control in testicles (testes). Covers testicular self-exam (TSE). Discusses germ-cell tumors called seminomas and nonseminomas (also called NSGCTs). Covers treatment.

  • Orchiectomy is the removal of one or both testicles (testes). The testicles are the male sex organs that produce sperm and the male hormone, testosterone. An orchiectomy is a common treatment for testicular cancer. It may also be done to treat other conditions such as prostate cancer or in the event of severe trauma to...

  • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is surgery often used to treat testicular cancer. It is done to remove lymph nodes that may be cancerous from the lower back and pelvis. During the early phases of stage I nonseminoma testicular cancer, it can be very difficult to tell whether these lymph nodes are...

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