Health Library

The Health Library is a collection of health and wellness resources created for learning and accessibility. Select a topic below for related health information or search for a topic in the search bar for more information on other medical conditions.

Nephrology

  • Discusses chronic kidney disease (also called chronic renal failure), which means your kidneys don't work the way they should. Discusses dialysis. Covers treating diabetes and high blood pressure, which cause most cases of chronic kidney disease.

  • Glomerular filtration is the process by which the kidneys filter the blood, removing excess wastes and fluids. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a calculation that determines how well the blood is filtered by the kidneys, which is one way to...

  • Discusses acute kidney injury (which used to be called acute renal failure), which means your kidneys suddenly stop working normally. Includes prerenal acute kidney injury. Covers causes like kidney or liver disease. Includes symptoms like little urine (oliguria) when you urinate. Covers dialysis.

  • Anemia means that you do not have enough red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to your body's tissues. If your tissues and organs do not get enough oxygen, they cannot work as well as they should. Anemia is common in people...

  • End-stage kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease, means that your kidneys may no longer be able to keep you alive. When your kidneys get to the point where they can no longer remove waste, you may need dialysis or a new kidney. When you...

  • Take a minute to learn about a urinary tract infection and what you can do to feel better.

  • Watch the personal story of someone who's living better with dialysis.

  • Understand what dialysis is and how it helps you feel better and live longer.

  • Learn how timing affects what type of vascular access you can get before you start dialysis.

  • Learn what to expect when you have a vascular access procedure for hemodialysis.

  • Learn how to care for yourself at home after a vascular access procedure.

  • Find out why it's important to keep taking your ACE inhibitor or ARB and how to make it easier.

  • Learn what happens during a kidney transplant and how to prepare.

  • Learn how to care for yourself after a kidney transplant.

  • Find out what to do and when to call for help if your baby or child has mild dehydration.

  • Learn how to care for your IV site.

  • This guide covers the basics of renal artery stenosis, including what it is, what causes it, and how it is treated.

  • Looks at eating plans for those who have had kidney stones. Explains what kidney stones are. Offers tips for preventing kidney stones, including drinking more water. Lists foods you should avoid.

  • Guides through decision to have surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Explains symptoms and discusses several types of surgeries used for different symptoms. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Discusses overactive bladder, a kind of urge incontinence. Explains what overactive bladder is. Looks at causes and symptoms. Covers how it is diagnosed. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Includes info on urine tests and urinary tract infections in children, teens, and adults. Also has links to stress incontinence and kidney stone info.

  • Discusses process of hemodialysis when chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury cause kidneys to lose ability to remove waste and extra fluid. Covers fistulas and grafts. Looks at what to expect after treatment. Discusses peritoneal dialysis.

  • Discusses surgery to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy one. Explains what a living donor is. Covers what to expect after surgery. Looks at risks. Links to picture of kidney transplant. Links to more in-depth info on organ transplant.

  • Describes kidney cancer. Covers symptoms and how kidney cancer is diagnosed. Covers treatment with surgery and medicines.

  • Covers surgical removal of all or part of the kidney. Discusses why it may be done, such as for kidney cancer or to remove a damaged kidney. Looks at how well it works and the risks.

  • Discusses the decision about when to start dialysis. Includes what kidney failure is, the treatment for it, and reasons why you might or might not want to start dialysis. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Dialysis is a lifesaving treatment when you have kidney failure. To keep up a regular dialysis schedule, you need a sturdy dialysis access where blood can flow in and out of the body. It must have a good, steady blood flow. Any type of dialysis access has some risk of failure. So it's important to always protect...

  • Learn tips for limiting fluids to prevent fluid buildup.

  • Learn more about leaking urine and why you should talk to your doctor about it.

  • Learn how to do exercises that can help prevent urine leakage.

  • Potassium is a mineral in your cells that helps your nerves and muscles work right. The right balance of potassium also keeps your heart beating at a steady rate. A potassium level that is too high or too low can be dangerous. If your levels are...

  • Learn what you can do at home to slow down kidney damage.

  • Learn from another person with heart failure about the importance of taking your ACE inhibitor/ARB.

  • Guides through decision whether to start kidney dialysis for kidney failure. Covers key factors in decision. Covers benefits and risks. Offers interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Adult protective underwear may be helpful for a person who has incontinence. A person who has incontinence has trouble controlling urine or stool. This underwear helps absorb urine and catch stool. There are different types of adult protective underwear. A washable kind may be useful when a loved one has trouble with...

  • What is rhabdomyolysis? Rhabdomyolysis (say "rab-doh-my-AH-luh-suss") is a rare but serious muscle problem. When you have it, your muscle cells break down, or dissolve. The contents of those cells leak into the blood. When it's in the blood, that material can travel to various parts of the body and cause problems...

  • Discusses need to watch fluid intake with congestive heart failure. Gives tips on spacing fluids throughout day and how to easily keep track of fluid intake. Also mentions diuretic medicines to remove excess fluid from body.

  • Guides through decision of when to do something about your child's bed-wetting. Includes common reasons and home treatment options for bed-wetting. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Oxalate is a compound found in some foods, and it is also produced as a waste product by the body. It exits the body through the urine. Too much oxalate may cause kidney stones in some people. Foods high in oxalate include: Beans. Beer. Beets....

  • Guides through decision to have extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to break up kidney stones. Describes what lithotripsy is and when it is normally used. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Uremia (uremic syndrome) is a serious complication of chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury (which used to be known as acute renal failure). It occurs when urea and other waste products build up in the body because the kidneys are unable to...

  • Guides you through the decision to have surgery for stress incontinence. Explains causes of stress incontinence. Lists risks and benefits of surgery. Explains other treatment choices. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Complete one of these records each day for several days, then take the completed records to your doctor. This information will help you and your doctor see how often you leak urine and what seems to cause the leakage. Name: Date: Instructions: Place a check mark in the appropriate column next to the time you urinated...

  • Dialysis removes urea and other waste products from the blood. To find out how well dialysis is working, you will have blood tests that look at the level of urea in your blood. Usually these tests are done once a month, at the beginning of your session and again at the end. Two measures show how well dialysis is...

  • Discusses nephrotic syndrome, a sign kidneys aren't working right. Includes high levels of protein in urine, low levels of protein in blood, and high cholesterol. Discusses swelling (edema) and kidney failure. Covers causes like diabetes. Covers treatment.

  • Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys lose their ability to function. To treat kidney failure effectively, it is important to know whether kidney disease has developed suddenly (acute) or over the long term (chronic). Many conditions, diseases, and...

  • Discusses signs of when your body loses too much fluid through diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, or exercise. Covers dehydration in babies, small children, and older adults. Discusses prevention, when to see a doctor, emergencies, and rehydration steps.

  • Discusses heat-related illnesses. Looks at heatstroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heat rash, and dehydration. Covers signs and symptoms. Offers home treatment and prevention tips. Covers emergency first aid treatment.

  • If you have preeclampsia or chronic kidney disease, your health professional may instruct you to check the protein content in your urine at home. Increased protein is a sign that your kidneys are being damaged. To test your urine on a daily basis,...

  • Loss of bladder and bowel control (incontinence) can sometimes result from Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Several strategies may help you deal with this problem: Encourage the person to use the bathroom on a regular schedule, such as every...

  • A person with multiple sclerosis (MS) may have difficulty emptying the bladder completely, because the muscle that helps to retain urine cannot relax (a form of spasticity). Sometimes urination can be stimulated by pressing or tapping the bladder...

  • The phosphate urine test measures the amount of phosphate in a sample of urine collected over 24 hours (24-hour urine test). Phosphate is a charged particle (ion) that contains the mineral phosphorus. The body needs phosphorus to build and repair bones and teeth, help nerves function, and make muscles contract. Most...

  • Discusses blood test to check level of potassium (K) in blood. Includes info on what affects potassium levels in the body such as kidney function, blood pH, and hormones. Explains how and why test is done. Covers what results mean.

  • There are four main types of kidney stones. Most kidney stones are made of calcium compounds, especially calcium oxalate. Calcium phosphate and other minerals also may be present. Conditions that cause high calcium levels in the body, such as...

  • Discusses extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a procedure that uses shock waves to break a kidney stone into smaller pieces. Covers how it is done and what to expect after treatment. Covers risks.

  • Discusses traditional surgery used to remove kidney stones. Covers why it is done and what to expect after surgery. Covers risks.

  • Looks at procedures to remove kidney stones from the kidneys. Explains difference between nephrolithotomy and nephrolithotripsy. Looks at when each may be done. Covers risks.

  • Briefly discusses test used to see if a kidney stone or something else is blocking your urinary tract. Covers how it is done and possible results.

  • For this procedure the surgeon, often a urologist, doesn't make any incisions (cuts in the body). He or she first inserts a thin viewing instrument (ureteroscope) into the urethra (the tube that leads from the outside of the body to the bladder). Then the doctor passes the ureteroscope through the bladder and the...

  • Explains why and how kidney stones form. Covers types of stones such as calcium, cystine, uric acid, and struvite. Discusses symptoms. Covers treatment, including extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy. Offers prevention tips.

  • Moisture alarms are the most successful single treatment for bed-wetting. They work best for older children who can hear the alarm and wake themselves. If attempts to use a reward system (motivational therapy), drink most fluids in the...

  • Motivational therapy for bed-wetting uses praise, encouragement, and rewards to help a child gain bladder control. It's about telling children that they have control of their bodies and encouraging them to take steps that bring about more and more...

  • What is bed-wetting? Bed-wetting is urination during sleep. Children learn bladder control at different ages. Children younger than 4 often wet their beds or clothes, because they can't yet control their bladder. But by age 5 or 6 most children can stay dry through the night. Bed-wetting is defined as a child age 5 or...

  • Keep a daily diary of all liquids taken in and all urine released, whether voluntary or involuntary. Your health professional may also call this a voiding log, bladder record, frequency-volume chart, incontinence chart, or voiding diary. The diary...

  • Kegel exercises make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These muscles control your urine flow and help hold your pelvic organs in place. Doctors often prescribe Kegels for: Stress incontinence. This means leaking urine when you laugh, cough, sneeze, jog, or lift something heavy. Urge...

  • A bladder stress test simulates the accidental release of urine ( urinary incontinence) that may occur when you cough, sneeze, laugh, or exercise. A Bonney test is done as part of the bladder stress test, after the doctor verifies that urine is lost with coughing. It is similar to the bladder stress test except the...

  • Urodynamic tests for urinary incontinence are measurements taken to evaluate your bladder's function and efficiency. The actual tests done vary from person to person. Some urodynamic tests are relatively simple and can be done in a doctor's office. Other tests require expensive and sophisticated instruments to measure...

  • Retropubic suspension surgery is used to treat urinary incontinence by lifting the sagging bladder neck and urethra that have dropped abnormally low in the pelvic area. Retropubic suspension is abdominal surgery, where access to the bladder and urethra is gained by making an incision in the abdominal (belly) wall. This...

  • Urethral sling surgery, also called mid-urethral sling surgery, is done to treat urinary incontinence. A sling is placed around the urethra to lift it back into a normal position and to exert pressure on the urethra to aid urine retention. The sling is attached to the abdominal (belly) wall. The sling material may be...

  • Urethral bulking to treat urinary incontinence involves injecting material (such as collagen) around the urethra. This may be done to: Close a hole in the urethra through which urine leaks out. Build up the thickness of the wall of the urethra so it seals tightly when you hold back urine. Most bulking materials are...

  • Several types of behavioral methods are used for treating urinary incontinence: bladder training, habit training, biofeedback, and pelvic muscle exercises. People who have incontinence due to physical or mental limitations ( functional incontinence) can try timed voiding and prompted voiding. Bladder training...

  • Electrical stimulation is used to treat urinary incontinence by sending a mild electric current to nerves in the lower back or the pelvic muscles that are involved in urination. You may be able to provide electrical stimulation therapy at home using a unit with a vaginal or anal electrode. Timing and duration of...

  • Absorbent products are items that absorb urine, such as adult diapers, plastic-coated underwear, pads, or panty liners that attach to underwear. Most commercially available items are disposable (such as Depend or Poise). Some absorbent cloths can be washed and reused. Drip collectors that fit over the penis are also...

  • Discusses urinary incontinence in women. Looks at types of incontinence, including stress and urge incontinence. Covers causes and symptoms. Discusses treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Some people who have a stroke suffer loss of bladder control (urinary incontinence) after the stroke. But this is usually temporary. And it can have many causes, including infection, constipation, and the effects of medicines. If you have problems...

  • Discusses test kits you can get without a prescription to use at home to check for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Looks at how test is done and how to prepare. Discusses possible results.

  • Several factors determine whether you have a complicated urinary tract infection. You have symptoms, such as: A high temperature, greater than 101 F (38.3 C). Ongoing nausea, vomiting, and chills. Your condition getting worse in spite of doctor-directed home treatment. You have other risks, such as...

  • Bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis) is a problem that causes pain in the bladder or pelvis. It also causes an urgent, frequent need to urinate. The problem is much more common in women than in men. To diagnose bladder pain syndrome (BPS),...

  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in older women and men. Factors that make older adults more likely to develop UTIs include: An immune system that isn't as strong as when the person was younger. A reduced ability to control urination and...

  • For years, people have used cranberry juice to prevent and help cure urinary tract infections (UTIs). There is limited proof that this is worth trying. Pure cranberry juice, cranberry extract, or cranberry supplements may help prevent repeated UTIs...

  • Discusses urinary tract infection in teens and adults. Covers symptoms and how problems might be diagnosed with urinalysis or a urine culture. Looks at treatment with antibiotics. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Covers test done on a kidney stone to find out what the stone is made of. Links to info on types of stones, including calcium, uric acid, struvite, and cystine. Explains that test can help doctor decide treatment or give info on preventing more stones from forming.

  • Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys. There are two kidneys...

  • Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Childhood kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the kidney. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney...

  • Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each...

  • Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscle wall that allows it to get bigger or smaller. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They...

  • Increase your fluid intake to replace lost fluids when you have a fever, diarrhea, vomiting, or sweating. The following suggested amounts of fluids to drink every hour are based on body weight: Your weight Fluid Pounds Kilograms Ounces Milliliters...

  • When your child is not feeling well, he or she may not want anything to drink. This may happen if your child has a fever or diarrhea or is vomiting. It is important that your child drink enough fluids to avoid dehydration. Not drinking enough fluid can cause constipation. When the weather gets hot or when your child is...

  • What are the most important things you need to know about your medicines? Make sure you know about each of the medicines you take. This includes why you take it, how to take it, what you can expect while you're taking it, and any warnings about the medicine. The information provided here is general. So be sure...

  • Make sure you know about each of the medicines you take. This includes why you take it, how to take it, what you can expect while you're taking it, and any warnings about the medicine. The information provided here is general. So be sure to read the information that came with your medicine. If you have any questions...

  • An injury to the genital area can cause severe pain. Usually the pain subsides over the course of a few minutes to an hour. Severe pain does not always mean that your injury is severe. After an injury to the genital area, it is important that you watch for urinary problems. Other injuries that can cause problems with...

  • When your child injures his or her genital area, the pain can be quite severe at first. Usually, the pain subsides over the course of a few minutes to an hour. The severity of the pain is not always an indication of the severity of the injury. After an injury to the genital area, it is important to watch for urinary...

  • Most people lose as much as 1 qt (1 L) to 2 qt (2 L) of fluid during 1 hour of exercise. When you are not drinking enough fluids, your muscles get tired quickly, and you may have leg cramps while walking or running. If you are an athlete, you can lose as much as 3 qt (3 L) of fluid an hour during an intense workout...

  • Daytime accidental wetting is much less common than bed-wetting. But about 1 out of 4 children who wet the bed at night also wet during the day. Knowing the cause of the wetting will help you and your child's doctor decide on the best treatment. Daytime accidental wetting is more likely than bed-wetting to develop...

  • Guides through decision about what type of dialysis to have for kidney failure. Explains the two basic types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Discusses changing your diet to help protect your kidneys when you have kidney disease. Gives general ideas about how to follow the diet your doctor or dietitian recommends. Covers restricting salt (sodium), protein, phosphorus, and potassium.

  • Discusses urinary tract infection in children 12 years and younger. Covers symptoms and how problems might be diagnosed with urinalysis or a urine culture. Looks at treatment with antibiotics. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • A urinary obstruction refers to anything that blocks, slows, or disrupts the normal flow of urine through the urinary tract. Obstructions can occur at any point in the urinary tract. They can be present at birth (congenital) or develop later. Causes of urinary obstructions in children include: Kidney stones. Kidney...

  • Most women have an increased urge to urinate during pregnancy. This is a normal body response related to hormone changes that occur during pregnancy and to physical pressure on the bladder. Bladder infections are more common during pregnancy. When a bladder infection develops during pregnancy, you may have discomfort...

  • You may have some difficulty urinating for a day or two after delivery. Your first bowel movement may be quite painful if you have had an incision (episiotomy) or a tear in your vagina. You may also have constipation or discomfort with bowel...

  • Guides through decision to stop kidney dialysis for kidney failure. Covers key factors in decision. Covers benefits and risks. Discusses what happens after dialysis is stopped. Offers interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • What is pelvic organ prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse occurs when a pelvic organ—such as your bladder—drops (prolapses) from its normal place in your lower belly and pushes against the walls of your vagina. This can happen when the muscles that hold your pelvic organs in place get weak or stretched from childbirth or...

  • Two common forms of pelvic organ prolapse are bladder prolapse (cystocele) and urethral prolapse (urethrocele). A cystocele occurs when the wall of the bladder presses against and moves the wall of the vagina. A urethrocele occurs when the tissues surrounding the urethra sag downward into the vagina. Both conditions...

  • Discusses peritoneal dialysis. Covers having a catheter and using dialysate solution. Discusses hemodialysis. Looks at what to expect after treatment, how well it works, and risks.

  • Many medicines may impair kidney function and cause kidney damage. And if your kidneys aren't working well, medicines can build up in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your doctor may advise you to continue to take a medicine but may change how much you take. Or you may change to a different medicine. Don't...

  • The stages of chronic kidney disease are determined by the glomerular filtration rate. Glomerular filtration is the process by which the kidneys filter the blood, removing excess wastes and fluids. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a calculation that determines how well the blood is filtered by the kidneys. It is one...

  • Many medicines can cause acute kidney injury (acute renal failure), such as: Antibiotics. These include aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, amphotericin B, bacitracin, and vancomycin. Some blood pressure medicines. One example is ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril and ramipril. Another is angiotensin receptor blockers...

  • Kidney transplantation is the best way known to save a person's life after he or she develops kidney failure. In the past, kidneys were only taken from living close relatives or from people who had recently died. Transplants from living donors have a better chance of success than those from deceased donors. Also...

  • Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can cause dehydration. A few examples are: Antihistamines. Blood pressure medicines. Chemotherapy. Diuretics. Laxatives. If you think that your dehydration is caused by a medicine: Call the doctor who prescribed the medicine to find out if you should stop taking...

  • What is vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)? Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the backward flow of urine from the bladder into the kidneys. Normally, urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The muscles of the bladder and ureters, along with the pressure of urine in the bladder, prevent urine from...

  • If you develop symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (STI), it is important to be evaluated by a health professional soon after your symptoms start. Symptoms of an STI include: A change in vaginal discharge (thicker, discolored, or bad-smelling) over a period of several days to 2 weeks. Pain, burning, or...

  • Answers questions about organ transplants. Covers becoming an organ donor and getting on a waiting list. Covers tests used to see if you'd be a good candidate. Looks at medicines that you might take after a transplant. Offers tips for staying healthy.

  • Discusses diabetic nephropathy, which means kidney disease or damage caused by diabetes. Covers causes and symptoms. Discusses how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including medicines, diet, and dialysis. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • What is overflow incontinence? Overflow incontinence is the involuntary release of urine—due to a weak bladder muscle or to blockage—when the bladder becomes overly full, even though the person feels no urge to urinate. What are the symptoms? Symptoms of overflow incontinence include: The sudden release of urine...

  • Total incontinence is the continuous and total loss of urinary control. One cause is neurogenic bladder. This is a neurological problem that prevents the bladder from emptying as it should. Spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and other disorders that affect nerve function can also lead to total incontinence. In...

  • Functional incontinence occurs when some obstacle or disability makes it hard for you to reach or use a toilet in time to urinate. It is often caused by: A problem with walking (such as needing a walker or crutches) that prevents you from reaching a toilet in time to urinate. A medical condition (such as arthritis)...

  • Stress incontinence in women can cause frequent involuntary release of urine during activities that put pressure on your bladder, such as coughing or laughing. The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure is designed to provide support for a sagging urethra so that when you cough or move vigorously or suddenly, the...

  • Discusses the causes and symptoms of bladder cancer. Covers how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Offers home treatment suggestions to manage side effects like nausea and trouble sleeping.

  • Transurethral resection (TUR) of the bladder is a surgical procedure that is used both to diagnose bladder cancer and to remove cancerous tissue from the bladder. This procedure is also called a TURBT (transurethral resection for bladder tumor). General anesthesia or spinal anesthesia is often used. During TUR surgery...

  • Cystectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the bladder. It is used to treat bladder cancer that has spread into the bladder wall or to treat cancer that has come back (recurred) following initial treatment. Partial cystectomy is the removal of part of the bladder. It is used to treat cancer that...

  • Both prostate cancer and its treatment may cause urinary problems. Urinary problems caused by prostate cancer The urethra—the tube that carries urine from your bladder and through your penis—passes through the middle of the prostate gland. When the prostate presses against the urethra, you can have trouble...

  • Urinary problems and injuries are a concern in children. A young child may not be able to tell you about his or her symptoms, which can make it hard to decide what your child needs. An older child may be embarrassed about his or her symptoms. When your child has a urinary problem or injury, look at all of his or her...

  • Most people will have some kind of urinary problem or injury in their lifetime. Urinary tract problems and injuries can range from minor to more serious. Sometimes, minor and serious problems can start with the same symptoms. Many urinary problems and injuries are minor, and home treatment is all that is needed to...

  • Discusses urinary incontinence in men. Looks at types of incontinence, including stress, urge, overflow, total, and functional. Covers causes and symptoms. Covers treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Catheters used to manage urinary incontinence include: Standard catheter. This is a thin, flexible, hollow tube that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder and allows the urine to drain out. The standard catheter is used for intermittent self-catheterization. Indwelling Foley...

  • Urge incontinence is a need to urinate that is so strong that you cannot reach the toilet in time. It can occur even when the bladder contains only a small amount of urine. Urge incontinence can be caused by bladder contractions that are too strong to be stopped by the bladder outlet valve (sphincter). This results in...

  • Stress incontinence occurs when a man unintentionally releases a small amount of urine when he coughs, laughs, strains, lifts, or changes posture. It is most common after a man has had his prostate gland removed and there was damage to the nerves or to the external bladder outlet valve (sphincter). After a man's...

  • An artificial sphincter is a device made of silicone rubber that is used to treat urinary incontinence. An artificial sphincter has an inflatable cuff that fits around the urethra close to the point where it joins the bladder. A balloon regulates the pressure of the cuff, and a bulb controls inflation and deflation of...

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