Health Library

The Health Library is a collection of health and wellness resources created for learning and accessibility. Select a topic below for related health information or search for a topic in the search bar for more information on other medical conditions.

Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

  • Discusses hyperthyroidism and what happens to the body's metabolism if the thyroid gland is overactive. Explains how Graves' disease usually causes an overactive thyroid. Describes symptoms. Covers exams and tests to diagnose it. Provides info on treatment.

  • Radioactive iodine is a medicine that you take one time. After you swallow it, it is taken up by your thyroid gland. Depending on the dosage used, the radioactivity in the iodine destroys most or all of the tissue in your thyroid gland, but it does not harm any other parts of your body. While radiation can cause...

  • Tony has done well with getting his cholesterol under control. And he's had a notable failure. But as Tony tells it, "I've learned as much from the failure as I have from the success. Maybe more." About 2 years ago, Tony's doctor told him that he had a high risk for heart attack and that his cholesterol was high. This...

  • You may have these symptoms when your blood sugar has dropped below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). When you have had diabetes for many years, you may not always develop symptoms of mild low blood sugar. Some young children with diabetes cannot...

  • Take care of your supplies so that you can test your blood sugar safely and get the most accurate blood sugar results. These results will be used to evaluate your treatment for diabetes. Meters. Follow the instructions from the manufacturer about how to care for the meter. All meters can be damaged by...

  • Review the symptoms of low blood sugar if you have diabetes or some other health condition that can cause low blood sugar. Symptoms of low blood sugar include sweating, blurred vision, and confusion. Know the early symptoms. You may not always have the same symptoms. Share treatment instructions with your partner...

  • Guides you through decision to use antithyroid medicine or radioactive iodine to treat hyperthyroidism. List benefits for and against each of the treatments. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Learn how to prepare and easily give yourself a single dose of insulin.

  • What is unplanned weight loss? Unplanned weight loss means losing weight without trying to. It may be caused by a medical problem, so be sure to see your doctor if you are losing weight without trying. If you are losing weight because you're exercising more or eating less, it is considered normal weight...

  • Learn how to build a healthy meal using the plate method to help manage your diabetes.

  • Learn how testing your blood sugar can help you stay in your target range.

  • Men who have low testosterone do not make enough of the male hormone called testosterone. This hormone allows men to produce sperm and to develop and keep normal physical male traits. Low testosterone is also called testosterone deficiency or...

  • Learn why taking a statin pill is such an important part of your treatment.

  • Get tips on how to care for yourself at home after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

  • Hear how one woman found the support she needed to make heart-healthy choices.

  • Learn about gestational diabetes and what you can do to have a healthy pregnancy.

  • When are weight-loss medicines prescribed? Losing weight can be hard work. Maybe you are wondering if taking medicines could help make it easier for you. Prescription weight-loss medicines may help some people who haven't been able to lose weight with diet and exercise. But they don't help everyone. Doctors only...

  • Learn what type 2 diabetes is and what it means for you and your life.

  • Find out how exercise helps you control your blood sugar and helps you feel better in other ways too.

  • Rediscover how metformin helps and how to make it easier to take.

  • Two techniques can help you manage your energy when you have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). They are: Staying within your energy envelope. Pacing yourself. These techniques can give you better control over your symptoms so that you can be as active as possible. They may also lead to...

  • Learn how to give an injection under the skin.

  • Find out what it means to be a kid with type 2 diabetes.

  • Help your child with diabetes make smart food and drink choices at school.

  • Here are 5 ways to help kids with diabetes choose healthy foods and drinks.

  • Find out how to support your teen who has diabetes.

  • Find out what type 2 diabetes in children means.

  • Find out what to do and when to call for help if your baby or child has mild dehydration.

  • Learn how to care for your IV site.

  • Find out what to expect and how to prepare for a thyroidectomy.

  • Find out how you'll feel after a thyroidectomy and how to take care of yourself at home.

  • Find out what to expect and how to prepare for surgery to remove one or more of the parathyroid glands.

  • Find out how you'll feel after a parathyroidectomy and how to take care of yourself at home.

  • Learn how to find solutions to a problem related to how you manage diabetes.

  • Learn what carbohydrates are and how to count them to help manage your diabetes.

  • Looks at adjustable gastric banding surgery (also called gastric banding), a type of weight-loss surgery used to treat obesity. Explains what it is and why it is done. Looks at how it is done and what to expect after surgery. Also covers risks.

  • A heart-healthy eating plan is full of foods that can lower your risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. This plan can help you stay at a healthy weight and manage cholesterol and blood pressure. It is part of a heart-healthy lifestyle that...

  • Follow your body's hunger and fullness signals. Smart snacking can help you keep your blood sugar levels stable, especially if you are taking medicine for diabetes. Try these tips: Enjoy eating the right portion. Try using a smaller plate, bowl, or glass while you slowly eat your snack...

  • Taking charge of your type 2 diabetes means controlling your blood sugar. But to control your blood sugar, you have to test it, says Rhonda O'Brien, a registered dietitian and certified diabetes educator in Boise, Idaho. O'Brien coaches and guides people with diabetes so that they can manage their day-to-day care. A...

  • Gloria hasn't always been an active person. Until she retired a few years ago, she didn't have time, she says. Her job at the local college as an administrative assistant kept her busy. And after work, she just didn't have enough energy—or interest—to do any exercise. After she retired, there were other things to keep...

  • Two years ago, when his doctor told him he had type 2 diabetes, Andy wasn't surprised or even that worried. His blood sugar had been creeping up for the past few years. His doctor had even warned him to make some changes—to lose some weight and get more active. But he felt okay. If he was sick, he couldn't tell. "I just...

  • Jerry has a message for everyone who is diagnosed with prediabetes. "Take it seriously," he says. "Of all the chronic diseases you can have, this one is really influenced by the choices you make." That wasn't how Jerry felt when he first learned he had prediabetes. His doctor told him to lose weight and get more...

  • Linda works full time, has three young children, and has zero time for the gym. So when she learned that she had prediabetes, she had to find creative ways to fit activity into her day. "My trick is to not call it 'exercise.' Instead, I just look for ways to add small workouts to my day," she says. For example, after...

  • Education on type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Includes info on juvenile diabetes and prediabetes. Discusses symptoms and treatment. Also looks at how to manage blood sugar levels, diet, and medicines, including insulin.

  • Has info on hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid tests. Also has links to info on PMS and polycystic ovary syndrome.

  • If you have diabetes, talk with your health professional (if you haven't already) about how often you need to test your blood sugar level. Use this form to record the times that you should test and when to call your health professional for blood...

  • How does alcohol affect diabetes? When you have diabetes, you need to be careful with alcohol. If you take medicine for diabetes, drinking alcohol may cause low blood sugar. Too much alcohol can also affect your ability to know when your blood sugar is low and to treat it. Drinking alcohol can make you feel...

  • Talk to your doctor about when a cholesterol test is right for you. Doctors use different guidelines to decide when a person should have a cholesterol test. Your doctor might suggest a test based on your age or your risk factors for heart disease....

  • Linda's best friend had just had a heart attack. Linda, 56, and Terri, 52, work together in the records section of their city's police department. They had also been working on getting healthier together. They both had high cholesterol and were overweight. They both smoked. But they'd been going to aerobics class and...

  • When Joe turned 60 last year, he decided he was overdue for a good, old-fashioned physical. He had always been blessed with good health, but he knew that at his age he should be having regular checkups, especially since he was overweight. His doctor gave him a full exam and found no serious health problems. She also...

  • Insulin is used for people who have type 1 diabetes. It's also used if you have type 2 diabetes and other medicines are not controlling your blood sugar. If you have gestational diabetes, you may need to take insulin if diet and exercise have not helped to keep your blood sugar levels within your target range. With...

  • Most pregnant women have healthy babies—and that includes women who are obese. But being very heavy does increase the chance of problems. Babies born to mothers who are obese have a higher risk of: Birth defects, such as a heart defect or neural...

  • High cholesterol is treated with heart-healthy lifestyle changes and medicine. These can lower your cholesterol and your risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. You and your doctor may decide to first try treating your high cholesterol without medicine. Changing some of your habits may be all you need to do to...

  • "Overweight" and "at risk of overweight" are terms sometimes used when referring to children who weigh more than expected. Doctors use the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts or the body mass index (BMI) to measure a child's weight in relation to his or her height. To find out your child's BMI...

  • Eating low-glycemic foods is one tool to help keep your diabetes under control. The glycemic index is a rating system for foods that contain carbohydrate. It helps you know how quickly a food with carbohydrate raises blood sugar, so you can focus on eating foods that raise blood sugar slowly. Foods that raise...

  • Take weight-loss medicine, along with trying to eat healthy foods and being active. Try to lose weight without weight-loss medicines by eating healthy foods and being active. Being very overweight makes you more likely to have serious health problems, such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Weight-loss...

  • Learn how to make healthy changes that can help delay or prevent type 2 diabetes.

  • Learn how carbohydrate foods raise your blood sugar.

  • Learn how insulin works and why diabetes causes high blood sugar.

  • When you test your blood sugar, you learn your blood sugar level at that time. But you can't tell what's happening to your blood sugar the rest of the time—especially overnight. A continuous glucose monitor, or CGM, can do that for you. A CGM has...

  • Managing diabetes is all about setting a healthy routine of medicine, eating, exercise, and sleep. But when you work night shifts or have changing work shifts, it can seem like there's nothing at all routine about your life. It's definitely more of a chore to manage diabetes under such conditions, but it can be done...

  • A colonoscopy is a test that lets a doctor look inside your colon. The doctor uses a thin, lighted tube called a colonoscope to look for small growths (called polyps), cancer, and other problems like bleeding. During the test, the doctor can take...

  • Learn the signs of infection with diabetes so that small skin problems don't become serious.

  • Learn the best way to test blood sugar. Knowing your blood sugar levels helps you manage your diabetes.

  • Learn how to prepare and give yourself a mixed dose of insulin.

  • It's true—diabetes raises your risk of heart disease. That means your risks of heart attack and stroke are higher when you have diabetes. Diabetes is plenty to keep up with as it is. That explains why dealing with both heart risk and diabetes can seem like too much all at once. But it's also true that good...

  • Can you "reverse" type 2 diabetes? Can you cure it? Diabetes can go into remission. When diabetes is in remission, you have no signs or symptoms of it. But your risk of relapse is higher than normal. That's why you make the same daily healthy choices that you do for active type 2 diabetes. Is there a cure...

  • Learn how to use a finger-stick test to see how food or activity can change your blood sugar.

  • Learn about the A1c test and how to make a plan to meet your safe target blood sugar level.

  • Guides you through the decision to take insulin for type 2 diabetes. Provides info on when insulin may be needed to control blood sugar levels. Covers benefits and risks of insulin. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Learn why checking your feet daily when you have diabetes is important and how to do it.

  • Learn how to eat to keep your blood sugar in your target range during pregnancy.

  • Learn the simple steps to give yourself an insulin shot in the arm using a syringe.

  • Learn how to give a glucagon shot to a person who is having a low-blood-sugar emergency.

  • Hear why some people choose medicine and why others try to change their habits first.

  • Compare the pros and cons of taking a statin to lower your risk for heart attack and stroke.

  • Learn how high cholesterol raises your risk for heart attack and stroke.

  • Learn about making healthy changes that can help lower your risk for heart attack and stroke.

  • Learn what you can do to have a healthy pregnancy and baby when you have diabetes.

  • Learn what other women with diabetes have done to prepare for pregnancy.

  • Hear how other people learned to do a better job managing their diabetes.

  • Learn how to prepare for surgery when you have diabetes.

  • Learn what you can do at home to slow down kidney damage.

  • Learn how to make an action plan to help manage diabetes.

  • Learn why having diabetes raises your risk for heart disease and what you can do about it.

  • Learn how to find what is getting in the way of taking your statin pill every day.

  • Sally never had to worry about her weight. She had always been active, enjoying her daily walks in the park. But things changed when Sally's mom had a heart attack. Sally took care of her mom night and day. But Sally got so busy taking care of her mom that she forgot to take care of herself. For months, Sally didn't...

  • Guides you through the decision to use the medicine metformin, lifestyle changes, or both to prevent type 2 diabetes. Provides specifics about metformin and goals for lifestyle changes. Lists benefits and risks. Includes interactive tool to help you decide.

  • Hear how other people stay motivated to manage their diabetes.

  • Get tips on how to take care of yourself at home after you have gastric sleeve surgery.

  • Learn how Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is done and what to expect after surgery.

  • Compare the pros and cons of having weight-loss surgery.

  • Hear what other people thought about as they decided whether to have weight-loss surgery.

  • Learn how laparoscopic gastric banding surgery is done and what to expect after surgery.

  • Learn how gastric sleeve surgery is done and what to expect after surgery.

  • Get tips on how to take care of yourself at home after laparoscopic gastric banding surgery.

  • Hear how one teen got motivated to take charge of his weight and eating habits.

  • Learn how prediabetes motivated one woman to change her habits.

  • Hear what motivated other people to make changes to keep their heart healthy.

  • Learn what your cholesterol numbers mean for your health.

  • Checking the feet and keeping them clean and soft can help prevent cracks and infection in the skin. This is especially important for people who have diabetes. Keeping toenails trimmed—and polished if that's what the person likes—also helps the person feel well-groomed. If the person you care for has diabetes or...

  • For a lot of people, diabetes leads to serious health problems. These life-changing conditions bring with them new medical decisions and plans. Medical decisions are very personal. Different people handle them in different ways. "In the past year, I've learned I have kidney disease from my diabetes...

  • Learn what causes gestational diabetes and how you will be tested for it.

  • Learn how keeping the healthy habits you used to manage gestational diabetes can protect your child in the future.

  • Learn what you can do to prevent getting type 2 diabetes after you have gestational diabetes.

  • See how other women who had gestational diabetes found ways to be active.

  • Learn why you need to test your blood sugar when you have gestational diabetes.

  • Learn why you may need to take medicine when you have gestational diabetes.

  • Your name: __________________ Date: _______________________ You can make the most of your office visit by having this form with you when you talk with your doctor. What to bring to every appointment Your blood sugar log. A list of all your...

  • Hirsutism (say "HER-suh-tiz-um") is extra hair on a woman's face or body. This hair is dark and coarse. It grows in a male pattern: on the face, like a man's facial hair, or on the body, especially the chest and back. What causes hirsutism? Usually extra hair growth is not a medical problem. It can run in...

  • What is weight-loss surgery? Weight loss surgery helps people lose weight. There are two types of surgeries. They can be restrictive or a combination of restrictive and malabsorptive. Restrictive: This type of surgery makes the stomach smaller. It limits the amount of food the stomach can hold...

  • Helping or caring for an older adult with diabetes can feel like a lot to take on. There's the challenge of caregiving—because what seems best for someone isn't always what that person wants to do. You may worry about invading your loved one's privacy or free will. There's also the stress of learning how to manage...

  • Learn how testing helps you make the connection between blood sugar levels and daily activities.

  • What is hyperparathyroidism? Hyperparathyroidism means that one or more of your four parathyroid glands may be too active. These are tiny glands in the neck, behind the thyroid gland. When they're too active, they make too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). This hormone helps control how much calcium is in your blood...

  • Because you have diabetes, you need to wash your feet carefully each day. Post this list of proper foot-washing steps in your bathroom. Use warm (not hot) water. Check the water temperature with your wrists, not your feet. Wash all areas of your...

  • If your feet require specially designed shoes, ask your insurance plan about covering the cost of the shoes. Medicare will cover foot exams and special (orthotic) shoes or shoe inserts. Some medical supply shops specialize in designing custom-fitted...

  • Discusses preventing high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) problems in a person with diabetes. Explains emergencies in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Discusses treating infections early, being prepared, and drinking plenty of liquids.

  • Thyroid storm (thyroid crisis) is a potentially life-threatening condition for people who have hyperthyroidism. Thyroid storm happens when your thyroid gland suddenly releases large amounts of thyroid hormone in a short period of time. If you have...

  • Foods containing carbohydrate are grouped into the following categories. The carbohydrate content is listed in grams (g). If you eat a larger portion, count it as more than one serving. One serving of carbohydrate has 15 grams of carbohydrate. Of course, not all foods contain exactly 15 grams of carbohydrate...

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy because there is not enough insulin. When the sugar cannot get into the cells, it stays in...

  • Because you have diabetes, you will need to be especially careful to protect your feet from injury. Wear shoes all the time. If you do not want to wear shoes indoors, wear slippers with hard soles and good support. Keep your shoes next to your...

  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) occurs when the sugar (glucose) level in the blood drops below what the body needs to function normally. Some medicines for diabetes can cause low blood sugar. Even mild low blood sugar can affect the way you think and respond to things around you. And mild low blood sugar can quickly...

  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) occurs in people with diabetes when the sugar (glucose) level in the blood drops below what the body needs to function normally. If your blood sugar drops below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), you may have symptoms, such as feeling tired, weak, or shaky. If your blood sugar drops...

  • Use this form to record a high blood sugar level problem. Fill out a record each time this happens. Take the completed form(s) to the doctor. If you or your child with diabetes is having high blood sugar problems, the diabetes medicine dose may need to be adjusted or the medicine may need to be changed. Date...

  • High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is most often seen in people who have diabetes that isn't well controlled. The symptoms of high blood sugar can be mild, moderate, or severe. If your blood sugar levels are consistently higher than your target range...

  • Discusses dealing with negative feelings that can interfere with your ability to follow your diet for diabetes. Provides ways to deal with negative feelings about your diet. Includes links to more info on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  • Use this form to think about any negative feelings you have about diabetes. My feeling is (for example, resentment):_____________________ I have this feeling because I think (for example, I resent the fact that I have diabetes and should eat less of some foods that I like): _______________________________________...

  • When you have diabetes, your feet need extra care and attention. Diabetes can damage the nerve endings and blood vessels in your feet, making you less likely to notice when your feet are injured. Diabetes can also interfere with your body's ability to fight infection. If you develop a minor foot injury, it could become...

  • This information is for people who may need to give a person with diabetes an injection of glucagon during a low blood sugar emergency. Giving a glucagon injection is similar to giving insulin. If possible, practice giving your partner or child an insulin injection at least once a month so you will be more ready if...

  • Explains using plate format as easy way to plan meals. Looks at how it helps keep your blood sugar level from going way up and down. Covers how it can be used with other meal-planning methods. Discusses how it helps you eat healthy foods.

  • Federal laws protect children with diabetes from discrimination in schools and child care settings. Schools and child care centers must provide reasonable help for the special needs of children with diabetes while disrupting the usual routine as little as possible. Also, children should be allowed to take part in all...

  • If you are at risk for low blood sugar levels because of diabetes or some other health condition, you need to keep with you at all times some type of food that can quickly raise your blood sugar level. Eating quick-sugar food puts glucose into your bloodstream in about 5 minutes. Glucose or sucrose is the best choice...

  • Use this form to record a low blood sugar level problem. Fill out a record each time this happens. Take the completed form(s) to the doctor. If you (or your child with diabetes) is having low blood sugar problems, the diabetes medicine dose may need...

  • Describes monitoring blood sugar levels in those with diabetes. Covers list of supplies needed, including blood sugar meter, testing strips, and lancet. Gives step-by-step instructions. Links to info on type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

  • When you have diabetes, you need to examine your feet every day. Look at all areas of your feet, including your toes. Use a handheld mirror or a magnifying mirror attached to the bathroom wall near the baseboard to inspect your feet. If you can't see well, have someone else use this checklist to examine your feet for...

  • People often think that following a diet for diabetes means giving up foods they like and having to eat foods they don't like. If you think a diet for diabetes means you can't eat any of the foods you like, try this: Write down what foods are good for you, which are bad for you, which foods you like, and which foods you...

  • Covers counting carbohydrates for people with type 2 diabetes who do not take insulin. Explains carb counting to manage blood sugar levels. Also explains how to count them.

  • Children with diabetes should participate in their treatment to the extent that is fitting for their age and experience with the disease. Toddlers and preschool-aged children usually aren't able to do tasks for diabetes care such as giving insulin...

  • Keeping your blood sugar in a target range reduces your risk of problems such as diabetic eye disease ( retinopathy), kidney disease ( nephropathy), and nerve disease ( neuropathy). Some people can work toward lower numbers, and some people may need higher goals. For example, some children and adolescents with...

  • Describes ketogenic diet and why it is used. Covers what to expect after treatment with diet as well as how well diet works. Lists risk factors and provides consideration points when using this treatment. Describes other special diets.

  • Thyroid hormones are made by the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland makes and releases two thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid hormones affect every cell and all the organs of the body. Too much thyroid hormone speeds...

  • Thyroid hormones help regulate the way the body uses energy. You need thyroid hormone replacement when you do not have enough thyroid hormones in your blood (hypothyroidism). Depending on the cause of your hypothyroidism, you may need to take...

  • Discusses how to deal with low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) when you have gestational diabetes (diabetes that developed during pregnancy). Covers symptoms and complications of hypoglycemia. Offers tips on preventing and managing low blood sugar emergencies.

  • Insulin is used to treat people who have diabetes. Each type of insulin acts over a specific amount of time. The amount of time can be affected by exercise, diet, illness, some medicines, stress, the dose, how you take it, or where you inject it. The table below is a general guide. Your results may be different...

  • Insulin can become damaged and ineffective if it is not stored properly. Unopened insulin that is packaged in small glass bottles (vials) should be stored in the refrigerator. Liquid insulin that is packaged in small cartridges (containing several doses) is more stable. These cartridges are used in...

  • Some medicines for conditions other than diabetes can raise your blood sugar level. This is a concern when you have diabetes. Make sure every doctor you see knows about all of the medicines, vitamins, or herbal supplements you take. This means...

  • Diabetes is a disease in which the body either does not produce or is unable to use the hormone insulin properly. The pancreas produces insulin, which helps the body use sugar (glucose) from foods. If the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, or if the body cannot use the insulin properly, blood sugar levels rise and...

  • Discusses signs of when your body loses too much fluid through diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, or exercise. Covers dehydration in babies, small children, and older adults. Discusses prevention, when to see a doctor, emergencies, and rehydration steps.

  • Make sure you know about each of the medicines you take. This includes why you take it, how to take it, what you can expect while you're taking it, and any warnings about the medicine. The information provided here is general. So be sure to read the...

  • Make sure you know about each of the medicines you take. This includes why you take it, how to take it, what you can expect while you're taking it, and any warnings about the medicine. The information provided here is general. So be sure to read the...

  • Discusses heat-related illnesses. Looks at heatstroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heat rash, and dehydration. Covers signs and symptoms. Offers home treatment and prevention tips. Covers emergency first aid treatment.

  • Eating fish, at least 2 servings each week, is part of a heart-healthy diet. Fish oil supplements can lower triglycerides. But doctors do not agree about whether these supplements can help protect your heart. Fish and fish oil supplements do not...

  • Covers the kinds of cholesterol. Explains that cholesterol is one of many risk factors for heart attack and stroke. Covers treatment to lower risk of heart attack and stroke that includes healthy habits and statins.

  • Insulin resistance refers to the inability of the body tissues to respond properly to insulin. Insulin lets sugar (glucose) enter body cells, where it is used for energy. Insulin also helps muscles, fat, and liver cells store sugar to be released...

  • You can safely exercise when you have diabetes. Here are some tips. Talk to your doctor about how and when to exercise. You may need to have a medical exam and tests (such as a treadmill test) before you begin. Also, some types of exercise can be...

  • Travel can make it hard to keep your blood sugar within your target range because of changes in time zones, meal schedules, and types of foods available. Whenever you need to see a doctor away from home, let him or her know you have diabetes. And...

  • Information on type 2 diabetes. Describes how insulin is made and used by the body. Describes symptoms and how type 2 is treated. Provides info on blood sugar (glucose) levels. Discusses obesity's role in type 2 diabetes. Discusses exercise and diet.

  • A doctor diagnoses mild, or subclinical, hypothyroidism through a medical history and physical exam. If your doctor suspects that you have subclinical hypothyroidism, you will have lab tests to confirm the diagnosis. Subclinical hypothyroidism is...

  • Covers hypothyroidism, which happens when the thyroid doesn't make enough thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones. Includes causes like thyroiditis. Covers tests for TSH, T4, and T3. Also includes info on treatment with medicine such as levothyroxine.

  • Graves' ophthalmopathy, also called thyroid eye disease, is an autoimmune disease that can occur in people with Graves' disease. In Graves' ophthalmopathy the tissues and muscles behind the eyes become swollen. The eyeballs may stick out farther...

  • Radioactive iodine, given in a capsule or liquid form, is absorbed and concentrated by the thyroid gland. The treatment destroys thyroid tissue but does not harm other tissue in the body. See a picture of the thyroid gland. While radiation can cause thyroid cancer, treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine...

  • What are thyroid nodules? Thyroid nodules are growths or lumps in the thyroid gland in the front of your neck. This gland controls how your body uses energy. Most thyroid nodules are not cancer and do not cause problems. Many don't even need treatment. Sometimes a thyroid nodule can cause problems. Sometimes a...

  • What is Klinefelter syndrome? Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic condition that affects males. Klinefelter syndrome occurs when a boy is born with one or more extra X chromosomes. Most males have one Y and one X chromosome. Having extra X chromosomes can cause a male to have a variety of physical traits. Many men...

  • Discusses gestational diabetes (diabetes that develops during pregnancy). Discusses symptoms and how it's diagnosed. Covers treatment with healthy food choices, exercise, medicine and insulin to control blood sugar levels.

  • The phosphate urine test measures the amount of phosphate in a sample of urine collected over 24 hours (24-hour urine test). Phosphate is a charged particle (ion) that contains the mineral phosphorus. The body needs phosphorus to build and repair bones and teeth, help nerves function, and make muscles contract. Most...

  • Discusses blood test to check level of potassium (K) in blood. Includes info on what affects potassium levels in the body such as kidney function, blood pH, and hormones. Explains how and why test is done. Covers what results mean.

  • Discusses test to measure blood sugar (glucose) levels in those who have diabetes. Covers why and how it is done. Looks at what might affect the test. Covers risks.

  • Looks at sleeve gastrectomy, a type of weight-loss surgery for obesity. Explains what it is and why it is done. Looks at how it is done and what to expect after surgery. Also covers risks.

  • Discusses gastric bypass surgery to treat obesity. Discusses why and when it is done. Covers laparoscopic and open Roux-en-Y surgery. Discusses risks during and after surgery.

  • Covers causes of obesity. Discusses health risks such as hypertension related to having excess body fat. Focuses on lifestyle changes you can make, like weight loss through healthy eating and exercise. Includes creating a long-term plan with your doctor.

  • What is myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)? Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) (say "my-AL-jik en-seh-fuh-loh-my-uh-LY-tus") is a disease that makes you feel so ill that you can't do your normal daily activities. Sleeping problems occur along with...

  • You may find it helpful to change your schedule to take advantage of times when you have more energy and feel less tired. Keep a diary for a week or so, and record the times of day when you have energy and when you are tired. If there is a pattern to how your energy levels change during the day, try to...

  • People who have chronic health problems, such as myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), often benefit from support groups. These groups can be a good source of information and tips for managing your illness and a chance to share your frustrations and problems with others who are in a similar...

  • Covers type 1 diabetes, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. Describes how pancreas regulates blood sugar (glucose) levels. Includes info on hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Discusses treatments, including insulin.

  • If high blood sugar levels have damaged nerves that go to your skin, you may sweat less, and your skin may become dry and cracked. Damaged skin becomes infected more easily when you have diabetes. To prevent skin problems and allow for early...

  • People with diabetes have a greater risk for gum (periodontal) disease when blood sugar is high. And gum disease can cause higher blood sugar levels, which makes it hard to fight infection, including infections in the mouth. To help prevent dental...

  • The teen years may be the most difficult time for a young person with diabetes and his or her parents. The normal cycle of rapid growth spurts and periods of slow growth along with the normal teenager behaviors of going to bed late, sleeping late,...

  • Some people with diabetes use their insulin syringes and lancets more than once to save money. But makers of syringes and lancets do not recommend using them more than once. Talk with your doctor before reusing these items. Some people who have...

  • Discusses oral glucose tolerance test that measures glucose (blood sugar) levels. Explains that test checks for gestational diabetes, prediabetes, and diabetes. Covers the types of tests done and how to prepare for them.

  • What is gynecomastia? Gynecomastia is overdevelopment of the male breast. In response to too much estrogen (a female hormone) or too little testosterone (a male hormone), the glandular tissue of the breast swells and forms a breast bud (enlarged breast). Gynecomastia can occur in babies, teen boys, and older men...

  • Gives info on heart problem that leads to heart failure. Includes symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment with medicines, lifestyle changes, and surgery. Also info on causes like amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, and sarcoidosis. Includes info on tests.

  • What is Addison's disease? Addison's disease develops when the adrenal glands, which are above the kidneys, are not able to make enough of the hormones cortisol and, sometimes, aldosterone. Your body needs both of these hormones to work as it should. Cortisol helps the body cope with extreme physical stress from...

  • What is Cushing's syndrome? Cushing's syndrome is a rare problem that happens when you have too much of the hormone cortisol in your body. Cortisol is especially important in controlling blood pressure and metabolism. But it affects almost every area of your body. Normally, your body keeps the level of cortisol in...

  • A ketone test checks for ketones in your blood or urine. Ketones are substances that are made when the body breaks down fat for energy. Normally, your body gets the energy it needs from carbohydrate in your diet. But stored fat is broken down and ketones are made if your diet does not contain enough carbohydrates to...

  • Discusses blood glucose tests used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. Covers types of tests, including fasting blood sugar, 2-hour postprandial blood sugar, random blood sugar, and oral glucose tolerance. Discusses how to prepare and what results mean.

  • There is a strong association between being overweight and the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Being overweight increases your chances of having risk factors for CAD. These include high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Losing...

  • Covers blood test that checks the amount of sugar (glucose) bound to hemoglobin. Explains that test is done to check how well you are managing your diabetes. Covers how it is done and discusses results.

  • As part of a healthy diet, eat at least two servings of fish each week. Oily fish, which contain omega-3 fatty acids, are best. These fish include salmon, mackerel, lake trout, herring, and sardines. Fish is an important part of a heart-healthy...

  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the tail. The...

  • Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland. The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized organs found in the neck near the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH or parathormone). PTH helps the body use and store calcium to...

  • Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the trachea (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right lobe and a left lobe. The isthmus, a thin piece of tissue, connects the two lobes. A healthy...

  • Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of tissue. Paragangliomas form in nerve tissue in the adrenal glands and near certain blood vessels and nerves. Paragangliomas that form in the adrenal glands are called pheochromocytomas. Paragangliomas that form outside the adrenal glands...

  • A pituitary tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the pituitary gland. Pituitary tumors form in the pituitary gland, a pea-sized organ in the center of the brain, just above the back of the nose. The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master endocrine gland" because it makes hormones that...

  • Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the trachea (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right lobe and a left lobe. The isthmus is a thin piece of tissue that connects the two lobes. It...

  • Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

  • Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal gland. Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal gland. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper abdomen. Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland is the adrenal...

  • Increase your fluid intake to replace lost fluids when you have a fever, diarrhea, vomiting, or sweating. The following suggested amounts of fluids to drink every hour are based on body weight: Your weight Fluid Pounds Kilograms Ounces Milliliters...

  • When your child is not feeling well, he or she may not want anything to drink. This may happen if your child has a fever or diarrhea or is vomiting. It is important that your child drink enough fluids to avoid dehydration. Not drinking enough fluid can cause constipation. When the weather gets hot or when your child is...

  • What are the most important things you need to know about your medicines? Make sure you know about each of the medicines you take. This includes why you take it, how to take it, what you can expect while you're taking it, and any warnings about the medicine. The information provided here is general. So be sure...

  • What are the most important things you need to know about your medicines? Make sure you know about each of the medicines you take. This includes why you take it, how to take it, what you can expect while you're taking it, and any warnings about the medicine. The information provided here is general. So be sure...

  • Discusses hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in people who don't have diabetes. Explains blood sugar (glucose) in the body. Describes symptoms of mild, moderate, and severe hypoglycemia. Covers treatment for sudden episodes and emergency situations.

  • Most people lose as much as 1 qt (1 L) to 2 qt (2 L) of fluid during 1 hour of exercise. When you are not drinking enough fluids, your muscles get tired quickly, and you may have leg cramps while walking or running. If you are an athlete, you can lose as much as 3 qt (3 L) of fluid an hour during an intense workout...

  • Name: _________________________________ Blood sugar target range: ________ to _______. Track your blood sugar each day. Week of ______. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Time (breakfast) Blood sugar Medicine Time...

  • Children Doctors weigh children at routine checkups. They plot measurements on a growth chart to see how your child compares physically to other children of the same age. Doctors update the chart at each routine exam to document your child's growth pattern. "Overweight" and "obese" are terms sometimes used when...

  • Thyroid surgery is used to treat thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, and hyperthyroidism. During this procedure, part or all of the thyroid gland is removed. During surgery, an incision is made in the skin. The muscle and other tissues are pulled aside to expose the thyroid gland.

  • What is diabetic retinopathy? Retinopathy is a disease of the retina. The retina is the nerve layer that lines the back of your eye. It is the part of your eye that "takes pictures" and sends the images to your brain. Many people with diabetes get retinopathy. This kind of retinopathy is called diabetic retinopathy...

  • Vitrectomy is a surgery to remove the vitreous gel from the middle of the eye. It may be done when there is a retinal detachment or if blood in the vitreous gel (vitreous hemorrhage) does not clear on its own. Removing the vitreous gel gives your...

  • Liposuction removes fat from your body using suction. During liposuction, small, thin, blunt-tipped tubes (cannula) are inserted through tiny cuts in the skin. Fat is suctioned out through these tubes as the doctor moves the tubes around under the skin to target specific fat deposits. In recent years, improved...

  • Laser photocoagulation uses the heat from a laser to seal or destroy abnormal, leaking blood vessels in the retina. One of two approaches may be used when treating diabetic retinopathy: Focal photocoagulation. Focal treatment is used to seal specific leaking blood vessels in a small area of the retina...

  • Discusses diabetic neuropathy, nerve disease caused by diabetes. Covers the three types: peripheral, autonomic, and focal. Discusses symptoms of each type. Covers diagnostic tests. Includes info on treatment with medicines, physical therapy, and TENS.

  • Diabetic focal neuropathy, sometimes called mononeuropathy, affects a single nerve, most often in the wrist, thigh, or foot. It may also affect the nerves of the back and chest, as well as those that control the eye muscles. Focal neuropathy is far less common than peripheral or autonomic neuropathy. It occurs mostly...

  • Regular exercise may help control your diabetes, which can reduce your risk of severe diabetic neuropathy. Depending on what areas of your body have been affected by nerve damage, though, you may need to modify some aspects of your exercise program so that other problems don't develop. Before beginning an exercise...

  • Autonomic neuropathy is caused by damage to the nerves that help control the involuntary functions of the body ( autonomic nervous system), such as heartbeat and blood pressure, sweating and temperature regulation, digestion, urination, and some aspects of sexual function. Heart and circulatory system problems...

  • Uses your child's weight and height to compare your child's size to that of other boys or girls of the same age. Covers what the results mean and next steps.

  • You may want to give the teacher a copy of your child's treatment plan to keep with this school plan. Adapt this form to fit your child's needs. Keep a copy of the completed form for your records and give a copy to your child's teachers. Name:...

  • To be diagnosed with diabetes, you must meet one of the following criteria: Have symptoms of diabetes (increased thirst, increased urination, and unexplained weight loss) and a blood sugar level equal to or greater than 200 milligrams per...

  • Oxytocin is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain. During pregnancy, oxytocin causes labor contractions to begin. Oxytocin also is released when a woman's breasts are stimulated by suckling or pumping, causing milk to move from the ducts and out the tiny holes in the nipple (let-down reflex). In the...

  • Your doctor, registered dietitian, or certified diabetes educator may suggest that you use one of two ways to count carbohydrate in your diet. For both, 15 grams of carbohydrate equals one serving. Use the method that is easiest for you. Counting grams of carbohydrate. For example, if you want to eat 45...

  • Discusses metabolic syndrome, a group of health problems that increase risk for diabetes and heart disease (coronary artery disease). Covers risk factors like obesity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. Covers diet and exercise to improve health.

  • Discusses high and low blood sugar levels caused by diabetes. Suggests when to check blood sugar levels. Covers symptoms. Offers home treatment and prevention tips. Includes info on diabetes emergencies.

  • Routine exams and tests At each prenatal visit, you can expect to be weighed. Your blood pressure will be checked. Your urine may also be checked for bacteria, protein, or sugar. Your doctor or midwife will track your baby's growth and position. To do this, he or she will measure the size of your uterus (fundal height)...

  • Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) do not ovulate regularly. They often have trouble getting pregnant. The medicines clomiphene and letrozole are commonly used to stimulate ovulation. But medicine doesn't work for some women who have PCOS....

  • Guides you through carbohydrate counting as a good way to help control blood sugar when you have gestational diabetes. Explains why you need to count carbohydrates and how to count them. Includes suggestions that can help you count carbohydrate grams.

  • Describes monitoring blood sugar levels when you have gestational diabetes. Covers list of supplies needed, including blood sugar meter, testing strips, and lancet. Gives step-by-step instructions. Offers slideshow on using a blood sugar meter.

  • Describes how to give an insulin injection when you have gestational diabetes. Covers what is needed, including syringe and vial or cartridge of insulin. Offers step-by-step instructions and links to slideshows on preparing an injection.

  • Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can cause dehydration. A few examples are: Antihistamines. Blood pressure medicines. Chemotherapy. Diuretics. Laxatives. If you think that your dehydration is caused by a medicine: Call the doctor who prescribed the medicine to find out if you should stop taking...

  • Discusses causes and symptoms of thyroid cancer. Covers factors that increase risk, including exposure to radiation. Discusses diagnosis and treatment with surgery, radioactive iodine, and thyroid hormone therapy.

  • There are different types of thyroid cancer. They are based on what the cells look like under a microscope. Your treatment will depend on which type of thyroid cancer you have. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). This is the most common type of thyroid cancer. PTC starts in cells called follicular cells and...

  • The menstrual cycle is the series of changes a woman's body goes through to prepare for a possible pregnancy. Most girls start having periods between the ages of 11 and 15. A girl who has not had her first period by age 15 has what is called primary amenorrhea. This is different from infrequent or light menstrual...

  • Discusses polycystic ovary syndrome, a problem in which a woman's hormones are out of balance. Discusses PCOS early symptoms like heavy bleeding or facial hair. Also covers more serious symptoms like miscarriages or infertility. Includes info on treatment.

  • Laparoscopic ovarian drilling is a surgical treatment that can trigger ovulation in women who have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Electrocautery or a laser is used to destroy parts of the ovaries. This surgery is not commonly used. But it can be an option for women who are still not ovulating after losing weight and...

  • Cardiac cachexia is unintentional severe weight loss caused by heart disease. The weight loss might be life-threatening. It can happen to people who have severe heart failure. Even with a very good appetite and high calorie intake, some people lose muscle mass. Cardiac cachexia can require supplemental nutrition...

  • Helps you check your risk of weight-related diseases such as diabetes, CAD, and high blood pressure. Tool calculates risk using body mass index (BMI) along with your waist size and other factors. Discusses what scores mean.

  • Omega-3 fatty acids are found in marine or plant sources, such as fish oil and flaxseed oil. A few studies suggest that adding omega-3 fatty acids to medicine (such as lithium) can help reduce the depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder in some people. Omega-3 fatty acids don't seem to have an effect on the manic...

  • Guides through decision about whether to use a diet plan to lose weight. Explains what diet plans are and that not all diet plans are safe. Explains risks and benefits. Includes interactive tool to help you make a decision.

  • What is iron toxicity? Iron toxicity occurs when the body has too much iron. The most common cause of iron toxicity is accidental overdose of iron pills. How can you prevent it? In children Keep iron pills and all medicines out of the reach of children. Iron pills often attract children because they look like candy...

  • Discusses diabetic nephropathy, which means kidney disease or damage caused by diabetes. Covers causes and symptoms. Discusses how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including medicines, diet, and dialysis. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

  • Teaches counting carbs to help you maintain control of your blood sugar level when you have diabetes. Explains why carb counting is important, allowing you to adjust the amount of insulin you take. Includes links to more info on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  • Adults with obesity are more likely to have certain health problems than adults who are not obese. These problems include the following. Heart disease and cardiovascular problems People who are obese have an increased risk of: Heart disease, including coronary artery disease, heart attack, heart...

  • The thyroid gland uses iodine from food to make two thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). It also stores these thyroid hormones and releases them as they are needed. The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, which are located...

  • Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency is a condition in which a lack of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) prevents the body from producing enough cortisol. Production of cortisol is controlled by the action of ACTH. ACTH is produced by the pituitary gland. This gland is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain. If...

  • If your child has been diagnosed by a doctor as being overweight or at risk of becoming overweight, a thorough medical exam is important to identify and treat any related health problems. History Your doctor will ask about: Your child's weight history, to see if your child has had an unusual change in rate of...

  • When a doctor asks questions about your child's eating and activity habits, the information helps identify patterns that may lead to extra weight. Nutrition history You may be asked: To describe your family's meals and snacks during a typical day. What your child eats at school. Who is responsible for meals. Is...

  • You may have a very mild form of hyperthyroidism called subclinical hyperthyroidism if your thyroid tests show that: Your thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels are low. Your thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are normal. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is different from hyperthyroidism. Your...

  • Discusses biliopancreatic diversion, surgery for obesity that makes the stomach smaller and bypasses part of the intestine. Looks at why the procedure is considered only for people who have not been able to lose weight other ways or whose health is at risk. Includes risks.

  • Guides you through decision about weight-loss surgery. Covers health problems like high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes that can be caused by obesity. Lists reasons for and against surgery. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • Experts do not agree on whether adults who don't have symptoms should have a thyroid test. The American Thyroid Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommend that testing be considered for those older than age 60. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force makes no recommendation for or...

  • Covers type 2 diabetes in children. Discusses how obesity or being overweight is causing type 2 diabetes in kids. Includes info on treatment. Discusses monitoring blood sugar levels. Includes info on hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.

  • Cholesterol (or lipid) problems are common in diabetes. These problems are usually related to obesity and insulin resistance. They can also be related to lack of insulin in your body. Triglyceride blood levels are usually elevated. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) blood level is usually low...

  • High blood sugar from diabetes can affect the body's immune system, impairing the ability of white blood cells to come to the site of an infection, stay in the infected area, and kill microorganisms. Because of the buildup of plaque in blood vessels associated with diabetes, areas of infection may receive a poor blood...

  • A1c is a test that shows the average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. People who have diabetes usually have this test to see whether their blood sugar levels have been staying within a target range. This test is also used to...

  • The table below summarizes many of the tests that can be done to identify complications from diabetes, including those tests done during a physical exam. The physical exam evaluates your overall health. The doctor pays special attention to your...

  • In general, people with diabetes either have a total lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or they have too little insulin or cannot use insulin effectively (type 2 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), accounts for 5 to 10 out of 100 people who have diabetes. In type 1...

  • Sometimes complications develop even when risk factors such as blood sugar level and blood pressure have been controlled. But following your treatment to control your blood sugar levels is still an important part of your treatment. The most common serious complications from diabetes are coronary artery disease (CAD)...

  • The body uses three main nutrients to function— carbohydrate, protein, and fat. These nutrients are digested into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are used for energy (glucose). Fats are used for energy after they are broken into fatty acids. Protein can also be used for energy, but the first job is to help with making...

  • Over time, high blood sugar levels from diabetes lead to damage of the retina, the layer on the back of the eye that captures images and sends them as nerve signals to the brain. Whether diabetic retinopathy develops depends in part on how high blood sugar levels have been and how long they have been above a target...

  • Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong disease that currently has no cure. Your child needs to take insulin injections. This can be a scary process for adults, not to mention for a child. If your child is very young, you will need to give these injections. When your child is older, he or she can take on some of the...

  • Many things work together to cause foot problems in people who have diabetes, especially poor circulation and nerve disease (neuropathy). Neuropathy significantly dulls awareness of your feet, making you more susceptible to extensive injury-related damage. Also, diabetes can impair your ability to heal by both damaging...

  • When a food comes in a package, take a look at the Nutrition Facts label and ingredient list on the package. Start with the "% Daily Value" column on the food label. A food is considered low in a specific nutrient (such as fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, or sodium) if it has 5% or less of the daily value. A food is...

  • With planning and thoughtful choices, you can follow your meal plan for diabetes when you eat away from home, such as at a party or a restaurant. Here are some tips: Plan ahead At restaurants, check for online menus that include nutrition information before you go, or ask for this information when you arrive. Most...

  • If you are a woman with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who is planning to become pregnant, meet with your doctor. Your doctor will want to talk to you about your A1c goal, your medicine for diabetes, your weight, and getting enough folic acid. Your doctor will want to make sure that you are up to date with immunizations. And...

  • Even though you have diabetes, you can have the same success with breastfeeding as any other woman. Breastfeeding is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and other medical specialist organizations, because it benefits the mother and the infant. Make sure your diabetes care team and other members of the...

  • New challenges emerge when your child with diabetes begins school. Starting a good communication system with key people at the school can help make this transition a smooth one. It's helpful to schedule a conference with school personnel—principal,...

  • You may find it difficult to stay motivated to manage your diabetes appropriately. The following suggestions may help. Set goals and provide positive reinforcement Praise and reward yourself for the things you do right. Use nonfood rewards, such as clothing, sports equipment, books, a golf trip, or a movie night...

  • If you have diabetes, your doctor will give you blood sugar goals and recommendations for treating high blood sugar. Here are some general guidelines. Mild to moderately high blood sugar Follow these steps if blood sugar is over the target range set by your doctor, for example, over 200 milligrams per deciliter...

  • What happens when you are sick When you are sick, your body reacts by releasing hormones to fight infection. But these hormones raise blood sugar levels and at the same time make it more difficult for insulin to lower blood sugar. When you have diabetes, even a minor illness can lead to dangerously high blood sugar...

  • Teaches counting carbs to help you and your child plan meals to manage diabetes and control blood sugar. Explains why carb counting is important. Includes links to more info on counting carbs if you use insulin and on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  • If your child doesn't want to feel the insulin needle, your child's doctor can prescribe an indwelling subcutaneous cannula. A small needle is used to insert a soft tube into a place where you give your child an insulin shot, such as the belly. The needle is taken out, but the soft tube (cannula) stays in your child's...

  • Describes monitoring blood sugar levels in children with diabetes. Covers list of supplies needed, including blood sugar meter, testing strips, and lancet. Gives step-by-step instructions. Links to info on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  • Discusses high blood sugar (also called hyperglycemia) in children with diabetes. Covers symptoms. Offers tips on preventing high blood sugar emergencies. Covers when to seek emergency care.

  • Low blood sugar, also called hypoglycemia, occurs when the sugar (glucose) level in the blood of a person with diabetes drops below what the body needs to function normally. Taking too much insulin, not eating enough food or skipping meals, or exercising more than usual can cause blood sugar levels to drop rapidly. If...

  • Use this form to count carbs. List the food, how much you eat, how many grams of carbohydrates are in the serving size, and any notes you may have. Food Amount Example: strawberries 1¼ cup 13 grams Current as of: August 31, 2020 Author:...

  • Low blood sugar level Use this form to record a low blood sugar level problem. Fill out a record each time this happens. Take the completed form(s) with you when you visit your child's doctor. If your child is having low blood sugar problems, his or her medicine for diabetes may need to be adjusted or changed. Date...

  • Foot problems in people with diabetes are usually treated by keeping blood sugar levels in a target blood sugar range and by using medicine, surgery, and other types of treatment. When foot problems develop, those problems need prompt treatment so that serious complications don't develop. Even problems that seem...

  • Covers type 1 diabetes in children. Includes info on managing diabetes. Discusses using glucose monitors for blood glucose testing. Includes links to info on dealing with diabetes in school. Includes info on hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.

  • Young children with type 1 diabetes aren't able to recognize when their blood sugar level is high or low and then tell an adult. And sometimes it's even hard for a parent to tell the difference. Some signs that may indicate high or low blood sugar in a very young child include: Irritability, anger, or crying...

  • Blood vessel and nerve damage linked with diabetes can lead to serious infections that are extremely hard to treat. Often the first place you have a problem is your feet. When you lose the ability to feel your toes and feet, you are more likely to injure them without knowing it. Even a minor injury, such as a small cut...

  • Camps for children who have diabetes provide an opportunity for the child to meet and share experiences with other children who have the disease. These camps support the child in assuming responsibility for his or her disease and gaining independence in diabetes care. It's also a fun outdoor experience that may include...

  • Covers warning signs that you may be at risk for type 2 diabetes. Includes causes and symptoms. Looks at lifestyle changes to get your blood sugar levels back to a normal range. Includes tips on diet, weight loss, and exercise.

  • If you have been diagnosed with prediabetes, you have an opportunity to prevent the progression of this condition to type 2 diabetes. By getting regular exercise, changing your diet, and losing weight, you can play a key role in preventing diabetes. Any type of physical activity may be beneficial, such as: Sports or...

  • Talk to your doctor if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and are planning to get pregnant. To make sure that both you and your baby stay healthy, you may need to fine-tune your diabetes care before you get pregnant. If you have diabetes and want to get pregnant, the most important thing you can do is to get your...

  • A diabetes care plan will help your child's teachers and other school staff know when and how to manage your child's diabetes. For example, if your child needs to eat shortly after taking insulin or to have a snack in class, then a teacher or other adult can make sure that this happens. At the same time, the teacher...

  • A child may have a higher chance of having high cholesterol if he or she: Is overweight. Does not exercise much. Does not eat healthy foods. Has a family history of high cholesterol. Your child's doctor may suggest a cholesterol test based on your...

  • Why is it important to get enough calcium and vitamin D? Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. Calcium keeps your bones and muscles—including your heart—healthy and strong. People who do not get enough calcium and vitamin D throughout life have an increased chance of having thin and brittle bones (...

  • Children who take insulin are at risk of hypoglycemia during and after exercise. But with good planning and awareness, a child can exercise and participate in sports safely. Good planning means checking blood sugars before, during, and after exercise. Then, you can keep a record of how exercise affects your child's...

  • Talk with your doctor about what is putting you at risk for type 2 diabetes and how often you need to be tested. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends testing for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in people who are...

  • Starting at age 10 or at the beginning of puberty, a child who has a body mass index (BMI) in the 85th percentile or higher for his or her age—or whose weight is more than 120% of ideal—and who has one of the following risk factors needs to be...

  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Diabetes Association recommend that all women who are not already diagnosed with diabetes be screened for gestational diabetes after the 24th week of pregnancy., Most women...

  • The goal in treating cholesterol is to lower your chance of having a heart attack or a stroke. The goal is not to lower your cholesterol numbers alone. The following guidelines are from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart...

  • A familial lipid disorder is a condition that runs in families. It causes very high levels of cholesterol. This condition can cause a person to get coronary artery disease (CAD) while still young. Because familial lipid disorders are rare, your doctor may only suspect one if you have: Very high cholesterol...

  • Millions of people struggle to lose weight and improve their diets. Finding a diet that works for you and then staying with it can be a huge challenge. Registered dietitians are experts in diet and nutrition, particularly for promoting general health and treating conditions such as high cholesterol. A dietitian can...

  • What are triglycerides? Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Your body uses them for energy. You need some triglycerides for good health. But high triglycerides might raise your risk of heart disease and may be a sign of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is the combination of high blood...

  • Weight loss in people with HIV has many possible causes. If you lose weight fast, it may be because you have another infection along with HIV. This type of illness is called an opportunistic infection. Gradual weight loss may be due to problems with nutrition. You may lose weight if you can't eat enough food or if your...

  • "Fibro fog" is the name commonly given to the cognitive problems that can go along with fibromyalgia syndrome. These problems with concentration and memory can lead to confusion, losing your train of thought, or forgetting or mixing up words or details. You can take steps to manage fibro fog. Try some of the...

  • Guides you through decision to get an insulin pump to manage type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Discusses who makes a good candidate for an insulin pump. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • More and more people with diabetes are using insulin pumps instead of daily shots to manage their disease. The pumps give them more freedom to eat, sleep, and exercise when they want. A pump can be an important tool in preventing problems like very low blood sugar. But using an insulin pump takes some getting used to...

  • Most insulin pumps have the same basic features: The ability to program more than one basal rate: for example, a rate for work days, a rate for days off, a rate for working the night shift. The ability to set a temporary basal rate: for example, you can tell your pump to give you less insulin while you go...

  • Guides through decision to use over-the-counter diet aids for weight loss. Explains lack of evidence that diet aids work. Lists the risks and side effects. Includes information about Alli. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

  • The dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi effect cause high blood sugar levels, especially in the morning before breakfast, in people who have diabetes. Dawn phenomenon The dawn phenomenon is a normal rise in blood sugar as a person's body prepares to wake up. In the early morning hours, hormones (growth hormone...

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